Download Amphetamines and Other Stimulants [Junior Drug Awareness] - L. Warburton, et al., (Chelsea House, 2008) WW PDF

TitleAmphetamines and Other Stimulants [Junior Drug Awareness] - L. Warburton, et al., (Chelsea House, 2008) WW
File Size3.5 MB
Total Pages121
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Truth About Stimulants
Chapter 2: Stimulants Make History
Chapter 3: The Devil's Candy: Crystal Meth and Other Amphetamines
Chapter 4: Legal Speed: Ritalin
Chapter 5: The High Life: Dependence, Addiction, and Overdose
Chapter 6: Who Uses Stimulants and Why They Do It
Chapter 7: Policing Stimulants
Chapter 8: Getting Help
Further Reading
Picture Credits
About the Authors
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Amphetamines and
Other Stimulants

Page 60

Legal Speed: Ritalin 59

Since methylphenidate became popular, it has been at
the center of a hot debate. Some researchers, parents,
and teachers think it is a “miracle drug” that can help
even the most overactive children calm down and focus.
Other people believe that using methylphenidate is dan-
gerous and leads to abusing other drugs and alcohol later
in life. Some debaters go so far as to question whether
ADHD is really a disease. Even celebrities have become
involved. In 2005, actor Tom Cruise publicly criticized the
use of Ritalin and other “psychiatric drugs.” As a follower
of Scientology, he was voicing the views held by many of
the religion’s followers who see Ritalin as a “chemical
straightjacket” that does more harm than good.

In response to these debates, researchers started to
study how the use of methylphenidate as a child related
to the abuse of other drugs as an adult. Some evidence
from the University of California, Berkeley, has shown a
strong link. However, research from the National Institute
on Drug Abuse has found that boys treated for ADHD
with stimulant medications were less likely to abuse alco-
hol and drugs as adults, when compared with boys with
ADHD who were not treated at all.

This debate has spread into the classroom. In past
years, some teachers encouraged methylphenidate use
in children with ADHD. A few schools even required
children with ADHD to take the drug or not be allowed
to stay in school. States now are passing laws to prevent
principals and teachers from recommending the use of
methylphenidate in children.


Page 61


Legal use of methylphenidate has exploded in recent
years. In the 1960s, very few people used the drug. By
the 1970s, fewer than 200,000 children took the drug.
After the ADHD guidelines were developed in 1980, more
people began using methylphenidate. By 1990, 3 million
people had prescriptions. By the year 2000, this number
had jumped to 11 million.

The increase in methylphenidate use happened for
other reasons besides the ADHD guidelines. Parents and
teachers saw methylphenidate as an easy way to control
children. The drug helped children to focus their atten-
tion and do better in school. Soon, methylphenidate was
being given to children who probably did not need it. Use
also increased because society as a whole became more
accepting of the drug. (Still, when some children with
ADHD become teenagers, they stop taking methylpheni-
date out of shame.) More adults also are being diagnosed
with ADHD and started on methylphenidate. Finally,
even though methylphenidate has been proved safe and
effective only in children older than six, its use in younger
children also is increasing.

More methylphenidate is used legally in the United
States than in any other country. However, Canada and
Australia also have seen sharp increases in the drug’s use.
Legal methylphenidate is used most commonly by people
in white, middle- to upper-class families. Boys take meth-
ylphenidate more often than girls do.

Page 120

index 119

receptors, 27
Red Bull, 13
reuptake, 27, 29
Riggens, Sean, 18
Ritalin (methylphenidate). See

also ADHD
abuse of, 56–58
administration methods of,

54, 55, 58
cost of, 73
debate over, 59
duration of effects of, 25
effects of, 58
history of, 35, 38
increasing use of, 59
neurotransmitter reuptake

and, 29
overview of, 53–54
as stimulant, 14
street names for, 66

Robert Wood Johnson
Foundation, 10

rocks, 72

SAMSHA, 89–90
scabs, 68
Scarface, 37
schedules, 78–80
Scientology, 59
secondhand smoke, 50
seizures, methylphenidate and,

self-treatment, 74
serotonin, 29, 42
Sesame Street, 83–84
sewage, 52
sex drive, 42, 46, 74
sexually transmitted diseases

(STDs), 48
sibutramine (Meridia), 15, 80
sinus infections, 44
sleep, amphetamines and, 42
smoking, amphetamines and,

smuggling, 20–21, 70–71,


snorting, 40–41, 58
social consequences, 63–64
sores, 47, 68
speedballs, 68
speed bumps, 48, 68
spoons, 86
sports, 31, 34
starvation, 75–76
street labs, 22, 50–52, 67, 82, 84
street names, 66–68
stress, norepinephrine and, 29
students, 71–72, 74
Stump, Jack, 43
superlabs, 50, 67
Sweden, 38
synapses, 27

Talwin, 66, 71, 73, 74, 80
teenagers (term), 68
teeth, 48, 49, 68
toilet paper, parachuting and,

tolerance, duration of effects

and, 24
toluene, 50
track marks, 85
transdermal patches, 54
treatment, 8, 86–90, 95
trends, current, 69–71
tweaking, 46
12-step programs, 91–92

users, 67, 69–70, 71–74, 74–77

violence, 43, 44, 64

withdrawal, 49, 61–62
work, effect of stimulant abuse

on, 63
World War II, 31

Yellow Jackets, 18

Page 121


about the authors
liANNe WArBurtoN and DiANA cAllfAs graduated with
Bachelor of Science degrees in Pharmacy from the Uni-
versity of Saskatchewan in Canada. They currently are
community pharmacists in Canada. Over the past few
years, they have researched, developed, and piloted a
crystal methamphetamine educational program geared
toward adolescents and their parents. The program
is intended to dispel myths, increase awareness, and
educate people about the dangers associated with the
use of this destructive drug. Warburton and Callfas also
have been keynote speakers at a number of conferences
related to the topic of crystal meth abuse. The majority
of these conferences have focused on educating health-
care professionals. Warburton and Callfas have provided
a pharmacist�s perspective to many different audiences
and have participated in many workshops. In May of
2005, the Saskatchewan College of Pharmacists awarded
Warburton and Callfas the college�s Presidential Citation
for their work.

Series introduction author roNAlD J. BrogAN is the Bureau
Chief for the New York City office of D.A.R.E. (Drug
Abuse Resistance Education) America, where he trains
and coordinates more than 100 New York City police
officers in program-related activities. He also serves as a
D.A.R.E. regional director for Oregon, Connecticut, Mas-
sachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode
Island, and Vermont. In 1997, Brogan retired from the
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), where he
served as a special agent for 26 years. He holds bachelor�s
and master�s degrees in criminal justice from the City
University of New York.

Similer Documents