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Table of Contents
                            ARCHITECTS’ DRAWINGS
Contents
Acknowledgements
List of Illustrations
Introduction
	DEFINITION OF SKETCHES
	APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF ARCHITECTURAL SKETCHES
	HISTORY OF DRAWING AND SKETCHING
	RENAISSANCE BEGINNINGS
	POST-RENAISSANCE
	THE SKETCHES AS ARTIFACTS
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER 1 Renaissance (1500–1650)
	SKETCHES
	MEDIA
	EDUCATION; WORKSHOP CULTURE
		Bramante, Donato (1444–1514)
CHAPTER 2 Baroque, French Classicism and Rococo (1650–1750)
	SKETCHES; INFLUENCES ON STYLE AND TECHNIQUE
	MEDIA
		Mansart, François (1598–1666)
		Borromini, Francesco (1599–1667)
		Webb, John (1611–1672)
		Bernini, Gianlorenzo (1598–1680)
		Hardouin-Mansart, Jules (1646–1708)
		Fontana, Carlo (1638–1714)
		Fischer von Erlach, Johann Bernhard (1656–1723)
		Wren, Christopher (1632–1723)
		Juvarra, Filippo (1687–1736)
	BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER 3 Neoclassical, Neogothic, Beaux-Arts (1750–1870)
	SKETCHES; EDUCATION AND DESIGN PROCESS AT THE ECOLE DES BEAUX-ARTS
	VISIONARY/REVOLUTIONARY/RADICAL ARCHITECTURE
	MEDIA
		Piranesi, Giovanni Battista (1720–1778)
		Adam, Robert (1728–1792)
		Boullée, Etienne-Louis (1728–1799)
		Latrobe, Benjamin Henry (1764–1820)
		Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)
		Soane, Sir John (1753–1837)
		Schinkel, Karl Friedrich (1781–1841)
		Pugin, A.W.N. (1812–1852)
		Paxton, Joseph (1801–1865)
		Labrouste, Henri (1801–1875)
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER 4 American Neoclassicism and the Emergence of the Skyscraper (1870–1920)
	EDUCATION
	MEDIA
		Richardson, Henry Hobson (1838–1886)
		Hunt, Richard Morris (1827–1895)
		White, Stanford (1853–1906)
		Sullivan, Louis (1856–1924)
		Ferriss, Hugh (1889–1962)
	BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER 5 The Turn of the Century Europe and its Influences, Prelude to Modernism (1870–1910)
	ARTS AND CRAFTS
	ART NOUVEAU
	SECESSION
	MEIJI
	SKETCHES; REPRESENTATIONAL MEDIA
		Olbrich, Josef Maria (1867–1908)
		Wagner, Otto (1841–1918)
		Gaudí, Antonio (1852–1926)
		Mackintosh, Charles Rennie (1868–1928)
		Loos, Adolf (1870–1933)
		Guimard, Hector (1867–1942)
		Lutyens, Edwin Landseer (1869–1944)
		Horta, Victor (1861–1947)
		Ito, Chuta (1868–1954)
		Hoffmann, Josef (1870–1956)
		Greene, Charles Sumner (1868–1957)
		Greene, Henry Mather (1870–1954)
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER 6 Early Modern (1910–1930)
	SKETCHES
		Sant’Elia, Antonio (1888–1916)
		de Klerk, Michel (1884–1923)
		Eiffel, Gustave (1832–1923)
		Lissitzky, Lazar Markovich (1890–1941)
		Tatlin, Vladimir Evgrafovich (1885–1953)
		Mendelsohn, Erich (1887–1953)
		Morgan, Julia (1872–1957)
		Rietveld, Gerrit Thomas (1888–1964)
		Finsterlin, Hermann (1887–1973)
	BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER 7 Modern and Postmodern (1930–1980)
	MEDIA
		Asplund, Erik Gunnar (1885–1940)
		Terragni, Giuseppe (1904–1943)
		Yasui, Takeo (1884–1955) Japanese
		Wright, Frank Lloyd (1867–1959)
		Griffin, Marion Mahony (1871–1961)
		Saarinen, Eero (1910–1961)
		Le Corbusier (1887–1965)
		Gropius, Walter (1883–1969)
		Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig (1886–1969)
		Kahn, Louis (1901–1974)
		Villanueva, Carlos Raúl (1900–1975)
		Aalto, Alvar (1898–1976)
		Gray, Eileen (1879–1976)
		Barrágan, Luis (1902–1988)
		Moore, Charles Willard (1925–1993)
		Smithson, Alison (1928–1993)
		Candela, Felix (1910–1997)
		Rossi, Aldo (1931–1997)
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER 8 Contemporary (1980–)
	SKETCHES; DIGITAL MEDIA
	THEORETICAL EXPLORATIONS
		Agrest, Diana (1945)
		Ando, Tadao (1941)
		Botta, Mario (1943)
		Calatrava, Santiago (1951)
		Chen, Shi Min (1935)
		COOP HIMMELB(L)AU
		Prix, Wolf D. (1942) and Swiczinsky, Helmut (1944)
		Correa, Charles (1930)
		Diller, Elizabeth (1954)
		Gehry, Frank (1929)
		Hadid, Zaha (1950)
		Hara, Hiroshi (1936)
		Hecker, Zvi (1931)
		Hollein, Hans (1934)
		Krier, Rob (1938)
		Larsen, Henning (1925)
		Legorreta, Ricardo (1931)
		Lynn, Greg (1964)
		Miralles, Enric (1955–2000)
		Murcutt, Glenn (1936)
		Piano, Renzo (1937)
		Roche, Kevin (1922)
		Safdie, Moshe (1938)
		Siza Vieira, Álvaro Joaquim Melo (1933)
		Soleri, Paolo (1919)
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	X
	Y
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
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Loos, Adolf (1870–1933)
Modena park verbauung, Albertina, ALA 343 C4, Graphite on paper

The work of Adolf Loos exemplifies the contrasts and contradictions of the years leading toward
modernism and the international style. Loos, who respected traditional architecture but experi-
mented with sleek volumes, was actually better known for his writing. In his poignant and often
ironic essays, Loos appraised contemporary culture and modern architecture, assuming the role of
conscience for architects on the brink of a new modern style. He admonished the overly radical
modernists in his article ‘Poor Little Rich Man’ and sarcastically entered Doric Column in the
Chicago Tribune Competition.

Adolf Loos was born in Brünn (Brno), now the Czech Republic, in 1870. He was educated in
architecture both at the State Technical School in Bohemia and later at the Dresden Polytechnic. He
traveled throughout the United States between 1893 and 1896, attending the Columbia Exposition in
Chicago and visiting New York, Philadelphia, and St. Louis. Upon his return, he wrote for the Neue
Freie Presse until opening a practice in Vienna. Influenced by the architects Wagner, Semper,
Schinkel, and Vitruvius, he felt a place in the evolution of architecture, which was based in tradition
considering responsibility to contemporary functions.

Loos further critiqued the state of contemporary architecture through his built work. His belief
that buildings should be plain on the exterior and reveal their complexity on the interior was seen
with the Goldman and Salatsch store on Michaelerplatz (1910) (Gravagnuolo, 1982). Loos’ relatively
limited repertoire of building projects was primarily domestic, including the villas Steiner, Rufer, and
Scheu, designed in the years before World War I.

Loos employed a formal approach to his design process initially drawing with ruled lines. On this
page (Figure 5.5) it appears that he was attempting a final drawing and, during the process, became
dissatisfied with its direction. Although begun with hard lines, the critique has been rendered free-
hand, and shows numerous lines that have been crossed out where they were deemed incorrect or
unnecessary. Loos eliminated a stairway and in several instances added doors through the single line
of walls. The diagrammatic layout of hard lines has been thickened with poché to better comprehend
the positive space. The top left portion of the plan has been poorly erased, leaving a dark smudge.
This entire area seems worked over with heavier marks and many alterations.

The elevation near the bottom of the page shows a formal and symmetrical façade flanked by
oversized and exaggerated towers. The towers appear to be later additions, rendered freehand, in
contrast to the limited articulation of the façade. They have been left unfinished to the ground,
where the exaggeration in scale becomes obvious. When his attention shifted to the problem of the
spires; he may have ignored their relationship to their context. Because of his satirical essays, Loos
was familiar with the concept of caricature, and thus he may not have been disturbed by the vari-
ation in scale. The visual use of caricature often employs exaggeration to reveal a truth beneath out-
ward appearances. The distortion is not meant to arbitrarily deform but rather to express a specific
poignant feature (Gombrich and Kris, 1940; Kris, 1934). This caricature, not unlike the procedure of
criticism, may not be intended to ridicule the look of the façade, but rather to more easily view the
tower construction or to study the elements in isolation. Beginning the sketch with ruled lines may
have reflected his interest to study simple geometries, but he may have also seen the definitive lines as
a base for subsequent evaluation practiced in verbal criticism and irony, he may have purposefully
put forth a visual hypothesis, expecting it to be altered through critical dialogue.

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FIGURE 5.6

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Scala Regia, 61
scale ruler (scale measure), 8, 49
Scamozzi, Vincenzo, 41, 43, 55, 83
S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 53
Scarpa, Carlo, 4, 215
Scharoun, Hans, 161
Schauspielhaus (Berlin), 87
Scheller, Robert, 8
Schinkel, Karl Friedrich, 73, 87, 125
Schocken Department Stores, 155
Schönbrunn Palace, 63
Schullin Jewelry Shop, 235
Scofidio, Ricardo, 207, 225
Scolari, Massimo, 209
Scottish Parliament Building, 245
Scully, Vincent, 98
Seagram Building, 185
Sea Ranch, 197
Secession, 111–114, 117, 123, 135, 142, 145
Secession Exhibition Building, 117
Sedgeley House, 81
Sejima, Kazuyo, 207
Semper Gottfried, 119, 125
Sen no Rikyu, 13
Serlio, Sebastiano, 29, 37, 41, 43, 75
set square, 8
Setúbal High School, 255
Seventh Regimental Monument, 103
SFMOMA (Museum of Modern Art –

San Francisco), 215
sfumato, 177
Shaw, Richard Norman, 129
Shenzhen Railway station, 219
Sher-E-Banglanagar National Assembly, 187
Shimizu II, Kisuke, 113
shingle style, 105
Shinobazu Bentendo Tenryumon, 133
Shiodome Office Development Complex, 251
silverpoint, 22, 49
Sistine Chapel, 33
S. Ivo alla Sapienza, 53
Siza Vieira, Álvaro Joaquim Melo, 255
Sketch-Up, 207
skyscraper, 97, 142
Smeaton, John, 81
Smith, Peter, 51
Smithson, Alison, 199
Smithson, Peter, 199
S. Nicola Football Stadium, 249
Soane, Sir John, 73, 85
Soleri, Paolo, 257
Somerset House, 43, 55
Southwestern Agricultural Co-operative Multiuse

Building Competition, 191
Spaarndammerbuurt, 147
Spirol Apartment House, 233

Sport City, 211
Stadelhofen Railway Station, 217
Stadtbahn Project, 117, 119
St. Agnese (Piazza Navona), 53, 57
Stam, Mart, 151
St. Andrea al Quirinale, 57
St. Andrew (Holborn), 65
State Assembly (Madhya Pradesh), 223
Statue of Liberty, 103
St. Gall (plan of ), 8, 9
Stile Liberty, 112
St. John Lateran, 53
St. John’s Presbyterian Church, 157
St. Matthew’s Episcopal Church, 197
St. Paul’s Cathedral, 43, 48, 53, 55, 57, 65
St. Peter’s, 25, 29, 57, 61, 67
St. Stephen’s (Walbrook), 65
Stuart, James, 70, 83
Studio Building, 103
Stuyvesant Apartments, 103
styli/stylus, 8, 22, 208
Sugawara, Seizo, 193
Sullivan, Louis, 15, 97, 99, 107, 109, 175
Sunflower of Ramat Hasharon, 233
Superga (Baroque Sanctuary), 67
Suprematist Movement, 151
Swedish National Romanticism, 169
Swiczinsky, Helmut, 221
symbolism, 4, 142, 169
symmetry, 70, 77, 83
Syon House, 77
Synagogue in Sillein, 135
Syngraphai (written specifications), 7

Taateishi, Seiju, 113
Tadao Ando Architect & Associates, 213
Tagliabue, Benedetta, 245
Taliesin (Spring Green), 175
Taliesin West, 175
Tasaki Museum of Art, 231
Tassel House, 127, 131
Tata CS Office Building, 215
Tatlin, Vladimir, 141, 142, 143, 153
Taut, Bruno, 141, 142, 143, 161
Taut, Max, 141, 161
Távora, Fernando, 255
Team X, 199
Teatro del Mondo, 203
Teatro Olimpico, 41
Telfair Museum of Art, 253
Tempe à pailla, 193
Tempietto S. Pietro in Montorio, 25
template, 7
Temple of Apollo at Didyma, 7
Tenerife Concert Hall, 217
Tensho era, 13

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Terragni, Attilio, 171
Terragni, Giuseppe, 171
Theatre and Cultural Center André Malraux, 215
Thomas Crane Public Library, 101
Thorton, William, 81
Thun House, 79
tiburio, 27
Tiffany and Company, 105
Toronto-Dominion Centre, 185
torsione, 203
Trans World Airlines Terminal, 179
Travelogues, 225
Tribune Building, 103
Trinity Church, 98
Trinity Church (Boston), 101, 105
trompe l’oeil, 208
Tsukiji Hotel, 113
TWA Terminal at John F. Kennedy Airport, 251

Uffizi Gallery, 21
Ukioye, 113, 123
Umeda Sky Building, 231
Ungers, O.M., 237
Unité d’Habitation, 181
United States of America, 13
United States Customs House, 81
United States Embassy (Athens), 183
United States Embassy (London), 179
United States Institute of Peace Headquarters, 253
University City Caracas (School of Architecture

and Urbanism, Pharmacy Building, Olympic
Swimming Stadium), 189

University of California San Francisco Mission Bay
Campus Community Centre, 241

University of Technology in Otaniem, 191
University of Virginia, 83
Usonian House, 175
Utrecht Civic Center, 245

Vacation and Leisure Center in Pavilion des Temps,
193

Vancouver Library Square, 253
Van der May, J.M., 142
Van Doesburg, Theo, 143, 151
Vasari, Giorgio, 10, 11, 21, 25, 39, 47
Veduta, 47
vedute ideate, 47
vellum, 21
Venaria Reale, 67
vernacular, 157, 169, 195
Versailles, 59
Viaplana, Alberto, 245

Viceroy’s House New Delhi, 129
Villa Farnesina, 29
Villa Giulia, 37
Villa Mairea, 191
Villa Medici (Poggio a Caiano), 87
Villanueva, Carlos Raúl, 189
Villa Rotunda, 25, 41
Villa Rufer, 125
Villa Scheu, 125
Villa Steiner, 125
Viollet-le-Duc, Eugéne-Emmanuel, 70, 112
Visionary/Revolutionary Neoclassical, 70, 72, 79
Vision Plan for Red Bank, 211
Vitra Fire Station, 229
Vitra International Headquarters, 227
Vitruvius, 11, 19, 21, 39, 41, 51, 55, 63, 65, 75, 83,

125
von Hildebrandt, Johann Lukas, 47
Voysey, C.F.A., 112, 127

Wainwright Building, 98
Wagner, Otto, 113, 114, 117, 119, 125, 135, 145
Walpole, Horace, 71
Walt Disney Concert Hall, 227
Ware, William Rotch, 98
Washington University, 109
Water Temple, 213
Webb, John, 16, 55
Whitehall Palace, 65
Whitehall Palace Banqueting Hall, 43
White, Stanford, 97, 105
Willoughby Incinerator, 177
Wittkower, Rudolf, 47, 57, 61, 67
Wollheim, Richard, 1, 161, 208
Woodland Cemetery, 169
Woodland Crematorium, 169
World Columbia Exposition, 125, 137
1967 World Exhibition, 253
World Trade Center, 207
Worsley, Giles, 55
Wren, Christopher, 48, 65
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 145, 173, 175, 177

X, Y Installation, 225

Yasui, Takeo, 173
Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum, 253
YWCA (Oakland, Honolulu, San Francisco), 157

Zantzinger, Borie and Medary Architects, 187
Zigzag Chair, 159
Zvi Hecker | Architect | Berlin, 233

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