Download AS NZS 2381.1-1999 Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres PDF

TitleAS NZS 2381.1-1999 Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres
TagsChemistry Nature Energy And Resource
File Size790.1 KB
Total Pages98
Table of Contents
                            AS/NZS 2381.1:1999 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres-Selection, installation and maintenance - General requirements
	AS/NZS 2381.1:1999 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES-SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE - GENERAL...
		PREFACE
		CONTENTS
		FOREWORD
		SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
			1.1 SCOPE
			1.2 APPLICATION
			1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
			1.4 DEFINITIONS
				1.4.1 Approved, approval
				1.4.2 Area
				1.4.3 Area, hazardous
				1.4.4 Area, non-hazardous
				1.4.5 Authority, authority having jurisdiction
				1.4.6 Cable trunking system
				1.4.7 Canned pump
				1.4.8 Chemical compatibility
				1.4.9 Cloud ignition temperature (of dusts)
				1.4.10 Combustible dust
				1.4.11 Competent person
				1.4.12 Degree of protection of enclosures
				1.4.13 Earth sheath return (ESR) system
				1.4.14 Electrical apparatus
				1.4.15 Equipotential bonding
				1.4.16 Ex component
				1.4.17 Explosive atmosphere
				1.4.18 Explosion-protection
				1.4.19 Flammable gas or vapour
				1.4.20 Flammable liquid
				1.4.21 Flammable material
				1.4.22 Flashpoint
				1.4.23 Hazard
				1.4.24 Heavy maintenance ('base maintenance')
				1.4.25 Ignition source
				1.4.26 Ignition temperature (of an explosive gas atmosphere)
				1.4.27 Inherently explosive
				1.4.28 Inspection
				1.4.29 Instrument
				1.4.30 Layer ignition temperature (of dusts)
				1.4.31 Lower explosive limit (LEL)
				1.4.32 Maintenance
				1.4.33 Maximum surface temperature
				1.4.34 Minimum dust cloud ignition energy
				1.4.35 Non-incendive equipment
				1.4.36 Pyrophoric
				1.4.37 Overhaul
				1.4.38 Repair
				1.4.39 Source of release
				1.4.40 Temperature classification
				1.4.41 Unprotected surface
				1.4.42 Upper explosive limit (UEL)
				1.4.43 Verification dossier
				1.4.44 Wiring, open
				1.4.45 Zones, hazardous
				1.4.46 Zones in explosive gas atmospheres
				1.4.47 Zones in explosive dust atmospheres
			1.5 STATUTORY REGULATIONS
			1.6 DOCUMENTATION
			1.7 QUALIFICATIONS OF PERSONNEL
			1.8 CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AREAS
			1.9 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
				1.9.1 Protection from mechanical damage and environmental injury influences
				1.9.2 Ambient temperature
				1.9.3 Use of aluminium or light alloys
				1.9.4 Toxic risks
				1.9.5 Non-electrical ignition sources
				1.9.6 Static electricity
				1.9.7 Lightning
				1.9.8 Electromagnetic radiation
				1.9.9 Radiation from optical equipment
				1.9.10 Cathodic protection
				1.9.11 Personal equipment
			1.10 PREVENTION OF EXPLOSION
				1.10.1 General
				1.10.2 Suppression or avoidance
				1.10.3 Explosion-protected electrical equipment
				1.10.4 Conditions of control
			1.11 PRECAUTIONS
				1.11.1 General
				1.11.2 Equipment rendered 'not alive'
				1.11.3 Equipment not rendered 'not alive'
				1.11.4 Igniting agencies
		SECTION 2 SELECTION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
			2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
			2.2 SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT NOT PERMITTED IN HAZARDOUS AREAS
			2.3 PERMITTED EQUIPMENT
			2.4 ZONE 0, 1 AND 2 HAZARDOUS AREAS
				2.4.1 Required information
				2.4.2 Selection with respect to area classification
				2.4.3 Selection with respect to temperature classification
				2.4.4 Selection with respect to equipment grouping
				2.4.5 Enclosures with internal sources of release
				2.4.6 Motors supplied at varying frequency and voltages
				2.4.7 Trace heating
			2.5 ZONE 20, 21 AND 22 HAZARDOUS AREAS
				2.5.1 Information required
				2.5.2 Selection with respect to area classification
				2.5.3 Selection with respect to temperature classification
				2.5.4 Types of explosion-protection
				2.5.5 Motors supplied at varying frequency and voltages
				2.5.6 Heating equipment
			2.6 VERIFICATION OF ACCEPTANCE OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
				2.6.1 General requirements for both Australia and New Zealand
				2.6.2 Other acceptable certification
			2.7 SELECTION OF REPAIRED OR EXISTING EQUIPMENT
		SECTION 3 INSTALLATION
			3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
			3.2 GENERAL INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
				3.2.1 General
				3.2.2 Access
				3.2.3 Electrical rating
				3.2.4 Associated equipment located in non-hazardous areas
				3.2.5 Intrinsically safe installations
			3.3 EARTHING
				3.3.1 General
				3.3.2 Enclosure and termination of earthing conductors
				3.3.3 Earthing of spare conductors
				3.3.4 Earthing of aircraft
			3.4 EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING
				3.4.1 General
				3.4.2 Temporary bonding
				3.4.3 Bonding of metallic enclosures, conduits, sheaths and armour
			3.5 ELECTRICAL PROTECTION
				3.5.1 General
				3.5.2 Location of protection and control equipment
				3.5.3 Resetting of short-circuit and earth-fault protection devices
				3.5.4 Phase failure protection
			3.6 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
			3.7 EMERGENCY SWITCH-OFF
			3.8 WIRING SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
				3.8.1 Specific methods not permitted
				3.8.2 Permitted types
				3.8.3 Telecommunications circuits
				3.8.4 Avoidance of damage
				3.8.5 Passage and collection of flammables
				3.8.6 Circuits traversing a hazardous area
				3.8.7 Fortuitous contact
				3.8.8 Flexible connections to fixed equipment
				3.8.9 Surge protection of circuits supplied from overhead lines
				3.8.10 Wiring entry
				3.8.11 Unused entries
				3.8.12 Jointing
				3.8.13 Protection of stranded ends
				3.8.14 Glands and seals
				3.8.15 Conduit systems
				3.8.16 Equipment circuit identification
			3.9 EQUIPMENT - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
				3.9.1 Installation of equipment
				3.9.2 Lighting
				3.9.3 Fastenings and tools
				3.9.4 Equipment above hazardous areas
				3.9.5 Non-electric entries
				3.9.6 Plugs
				3.9.7 Motors
			3.10 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATIONS IN ZONE 0 AREAS
				3.10.1 Flexible cable systems
				3.10.2 Conduit systems
			3.11 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATIONS IN ZONE 1 AREAS
				3.11.1 Flexible connections
				3.11.2 Cable glands
				3.11.3 Plugs and socket-outlets
				3.11.4 Pendant luminaires
				3.11.5 Heating cables
			3.12 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATIONS IN ZONE 2 AREAS
				3.12.1 Wiring systems
				3.12.2 Pendant luminaires
			3.13 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATIONS IN ZONE 20, 21 AND 22 AREAS
				3.13.1 Wiring systems
				3.13.2 Flexible connections
				3.13.3 Cable glands/entries
				3.13.4 Dielectrics having a flashpoint exceeding 250°C
				3.13.5 Luminaires
				3.13.6 Pendant luminaires
				3.13.7 Plugs and socket-outlets
			3.14 SPECIFIC OCCUPANCIES
				3.14.1 General
				3.14.2 Ovens
				3.14.3 Fuel dispensing
				3.14.4 Finishing processes
				3.14.5 Flammable medical agents
				3.14.6 Laboratory fume cupboards
				3.14.7 Secondary batteries in buildings
			3.15 TRACE HEATING
		SECTION 4 INSPECTION AND TESTING INCLUDING COMMISSIONING
			4.1 GENERAL
			4.2 DOCUMENTATION
			4.3 INSPECTION
				4.3.1 General
				4.3.2 Types of inspection
				4.3.3 Grades of inspection
			4.4 ITEMS REQUIRING INSPECTION
			4.5 TESTING
				4.5.1 General
				4.5.2 Pre-commissioning tests
		SECTION 5 MAINTENANCE
			5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
			5.2 REMEDIAL MEASURES AND MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIPMENT
			5.3 MAINTENANCE OF FLEXIBLE CABLES
			5.4 WITHDRAWAL FROM SERVICE
			5.5 FASTENINGS AND TOOLS
			5.6 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
			5.7 EARTHING AND EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING
			5.8 CONDITIONS OF USE
			5.9 MOVABLE EQUIPMENT AND ITS CONNECTIONS
			5.10 OVERHAUL AND REPAIR
		APPENDIX A - LIST OF ADDITIONAL STANDARDS RECOGNIZED BY REGULATORY
AUTHORITIES IN NEW ZEALAND
		APPENDIX B - EUROPEAN CERTIFICATION BODIES WHO CAN ISSUE ELECTRICAL SAFETY CERTIFICATION ON ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR USE...
		APPENDIX C - FRICTIONAL SPARKING RISKS WITH LIGHT METALS*
AND THEIR ALLOYS
			C1 GENERAL
			C2 RIGIDLY MOUNTED EQUIPMENT
			C3 PORTABLE AND TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT
			C4 FANS
			C5 ALUMINIUM CONDUCTORS
		APPENDIX D - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
		APPENDIX E - ENCLOSURES WITH INTERNAL SOURCES OF RELEASE
			E1 GENERAL
			E2 TYPE AND EXTENT OF INTERNAL RELEASE
			E3 COMBINATION OF TYPES OF RELEASE
				E3.1 General
			E4 EFFECT OF THE COMBINATIONS OF TYPES OF RELEASE ON AREA CLASSIFICATION
			E5 PROTECTION FOR ENCLOSURES CONTAINING A SOURCE OF RELEASE
				E5.1 Types of enclosure
				E5.2 Flameproof enclosure
				E5.3 Pressurized and continuously diluted enclosures
				E5.4 Other enclosures
			E6 SELECTION OF A TYPE OF EXPLOSION-PROTECTION
				E6.1 For enclosures containing a source of release
				E6.2 Using Table E1
		APPENDIX F - RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EQUIPMENT GROUPS AND FORMER
GAS GROUPS OR CLASSES
		APPENDIX G - REPORT ON THE DANGER FROM HIGH-INTENSITY LIGHT SOURCES IN
HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES
			G1 INTRODUCTION
			G2 BREADTH OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS
			G3 REFERENCE EXPERIMENTS
			G4 CORRELATION WITH KNOWN IGNITION PARAMETERS
			G5 PREDICTIVE COMPUTATIONS
			G6 LIMITING SAFETY CRITERIA AND COMPARISON WITH EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
			G7 CONCLUSIONS
		APPENDIX H - THE NATIONAL CERTIFICATION SCHEMES
FOR EXPLOSION-PROTECTED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
(TERMED Ex EQUIPMENT)
			H1 INTRODUCTION
			H2 AUS Ex SCHEME
			H3 ANZEx SCHEME
				H3.1 Background
				H3.2 Outline of ANZEx Scheme
		APPENDIX I - PROPERTIES OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, VAPOURS AND GASES
			I1 SCOPE
			I2 FLASHPOINT
				I2.1 General
				I2.2 Materials having high flashpoints
				I2.3 Classification of flashpoints
			I3 IGNITION TEMPERATURE
				I3.1 General
				I3.2 Use of ignition temperature
			I4 EXPLOSIVE (FLAMMABLE) LIMITS
			I5 EXPLOSIVE (FLAMMABILITY) RANGE
			I6 VAPOUR DENSITY
				I6.1 General
				I6.2 Effects of temperature changes
			I7 BOILING POINT
			I8 TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION
			I9 CLASSIFICATION OF GASES AND VAPOURS
				I9.1 General
				I9.2 Classification according to the Maximum Experimental Safe Gaps (MESG)
				I9.3 Classification according to the Minimum Igniting Currents (MIC)
				I9.4 Classification according to MESG and MIC
				I9.5 Classification according to a similarity of chemical structure
			I10 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
				I10.1 Relation between ignition temperature and maximum surface temperature
				I10.2 Mixtures of compounds
				I10.3 Mists
				I10.4 Impurities
				I10.5 Effect of environments having other than normal atmospheric conditions
		APPENDIX J - CALCULATION OF THE EXPLOSIVE LIMITS FOR A MIXTURE OF GASES
			J1 LIMITS FOR SIMPLE MIXTURES
			J2 LIMITS FOR COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL GAS MIXTURES
                        

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