Download ATPL Summary PDF

TitleATPL Summary
TagsTroposphere Wound Instrument Flight Rules Gyroscope Visual Flight Rules
File Size1.3 MB
Total Pages60
Document Text Contents
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Formulas / ATPL theory summary

(Rob Groothuis)

Index ATPL

Page 2 to 2 Handy formulas / guidelines general

Page 3 to 14 Formulas all subjects

Page 15 to 18 General navigation

Page 19 to 26 Meteorology

Page 27 to 31 Instrumentation

Page 32 to 33 Communications VFR / IFR

Page 34 to 34 Mass and balance

Page 35 to 36 Flight planning

Page 37 to 41 Human performance & limitations

Page 42 to 45 Radio navigation

Page 46 to 48 Principles of flight

Page 49 to 56 Aviation law

Page 57 to 57 Operational procedures

Page 58 to 59 Performance

Page 60 to 60 Aircraft general knowledge

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Handy formulas/guidelines general





ftheightglidepath distance (ft) ≈ (300 ft/nm)

rate of descent (ft/min):
GS x 5 = 3° glide path

climb gradient =




glide path in ° =

x 60

angle of bank in rate 1 turn =

+ 7 (approximation)

radius of turn (NM) =
π×× 60rate


radius of turn (m) =

⋅× tan10


’’n’’ (load factor) =


factorload ⋅ = VStall increasing factor

IAS (position/instrument error) RAS/CAS (compressibility) EAS (density) TAS

EAS = densityrelative ⋅ x TAS (example: relative density = ¼ at 40000 ft)

VOR’s variation at station / NDB’s variation at aircraft.

relative bearing + true heading = true bearing

QDR + var. = QTE (QDR = magnetic from station / QTE = true from station)

QDM ± 180° = QDR (radial) / QDM = ’’bearings on the RMI’’ (QDR = magnetic to)

LSS (kt) = )(94,38 KT ° [273°K = 0°C]

LSS = 661 kt (at sea level at ISA temp.= 288 k)
LSS = 573 kt (ISA tropopause temp.= 216,5 k)


nomach =⋅ .

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APFDS auto pilot flight director system. consists of auto pilot, FD system, auto throttle and yaw damper.

function of the outer loop is to control, inner loop to stabilize.
stability functions are yaw damper, pitch attitude and roll attitude
system gain is higher at low speed.

CMD = full auto pilot control // CWS = control wheel steering (outer loop control).

EPR = engine pressure ratio = designation of engine power output.
N1 = fan speed as a percentage (B737).

auto land; fail active system = allows the approach to continue after a single failure.

fail passive = 2 systems total.

CAT III = full auto lands glide slope signal is disconnected at 45ft radio height.
CAT II/III use DH based on radio height.

warnings or level A alerts = require immediate crew action.

caution or level B alerts = require immediate crew alertness and possible future actions.

advisory or level C alerts = require crew alertness only.

radio altimeter; active from 2500ft down to ground level.

transmit a 30° cone down.
SHF between 4200MHz and 4400MHz described as FM.
the difference between transmitting and returning, the beat frequency, is measured.
accuracy = 1ft or ±3% (the greater of them).

TAWS terrain awareness warning system.

GPWS mode 1; active 2450ft radio to 50ft and when barometric descent> 3x radio height (’’sink rate’’ /

’’pull up’’ warning).
mode 2; triggered by reducing radio altitude and warns of raising ground (’’terrain’’ warning).
mode 3; warns of barometric height loss after TOGA (flaps and gear not in approach configuration)

(’’don’t sink’’ warning).
mode 4; warns of closeness to the ground without the appropriate gear/flap selection (’’to low
terrain’’ warning when at high speed and ’’to low flaps’’ at lower speeds).
mode 5; deviation below glide slope (’’glide slope’’ warning).
mode 6; height and bank angles call outs designed to increase situational awareness (not required

by JAR OPS).
mode 7; provides wind shear alerts and warnings (not required by JAR OPS).

stall warning = alpha sensor (vane or based on pressure).

TCAS = ACAS (airborne collision avoidance system).

TA = traffic advisory ’’traffic traffic’’ // RA = resolution advisory.
RA = crew response is to follow the instructions smoothly and promptly. pilot must inform ATC of deviations
from clearances ASAP.

TCAS inputs mode S replies / ADC for FL / IRS for attitude / flap position / radio altimeter.

(D)FDR = flight data recorder // CVR = cockpit voice recorder.

TGT= turbine gas / EGT= exhaust gas / TIT= turbine inlet / TET= turbine entry / JPT= jet pipe


thermo couples; dissimilar metals can create an electrical potential at their junction which is proportional to

the temperature. (thermo EMF) high temperatures.
galvanometer = millimetric voltmeter.
optical or radiation pyrometers really high temperature measurement.

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* direct tachometers = need to be near the cockpit.
* DC tachogenerator = output a voltage that varies with engine speed (wear and sparks).
* single phase tachogenerator = rectified to DC (no wear and sparks).
* three phase tachogenerator = frequency output that varies with speed.
* induction tachometer = suitable for high speeds (use a phonic wheel) digital output.

synchroscope = 1 master engine as reference.

pressure gauges = elastic pressure sensing elements are used.

MAP = manifold air pressure is an indication of the torque generated by the engine.
MAP measuring device = pressure bellows and fixed aneroid bellows working together.

EPR = engine pressure ratio.

FADEC = full authority digital engine control system.

capacitance systems = indicate fuel mass, not volume (=advantage).

fuel gauges always read zero after failure.

venturi flow indicator = accuracy ±2%.

variable orifice flow indicator measuring volume but can be directed to mass flow using temperature

sensitive resistors to compensate for density changes.

turbine volume flow indicators turbine blades are built with magnetic inserts. the blades pass an induction
coil in the casing. do not cope well with the large rate and temperature ranges on modern aircraft, these use
a mass flow indicator.

mass flow indicator meet massa traagheid van de vloeistof speed x mass, so true mass can be indicated
- stator torque.
- rotor torque.

attitude indicator (artificial horizon) turning errors

90º 270180




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class A jets must land in 60% of LDA, Turbo props and class B in 70%.

LDA x 60% = Gross LDR.

class B (multi) aircraft need to clear obstacles by 50ft using net performance (net=0,77xgross).

class A aircraft need to clear obstacles by 35ft using net performance, 50ft in a turn.
(net=grossx0,8-twin // or 0,9-3 engines // or 1,0-4 engines).

the NTOFP (net take of flight path) ends at 1500ft.

increased V2 procedure can improve MTOM when WAT limited but not field length limited.
increased V2 procedure can improve climb gradients when obstacle limited but not field length limited.

reduced thrust take of = assumed temperature procedure = variable thrust procedure.

hydroplaning speed (kt) = 9 )( psiP (bar x 14,5 = psi).

braking coefficient braking action snowtam
0,4 > good 5
0,39 – 0,36 medium to good 4
0,35 – 0,30 medium 3
0,29 – 0,26 medium to poor 2
0,25 < poor 1

climb gradient =




PMC = performance management control.

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Aircraft General Knowledge

F = force (lbs) / A = area (sq in – in2) / P = pressure (psi) bar x 14,5 = psi

P =

V = I x R // P = I2 x R // P = V x I

hydroplaning speed (kt) = 9 )( psiP (bar x 14,5 = psi).

RMS (root mean square) voltage = 0,707 x peak voltage

F (Hz) = rpm x pole pairs x 60

typical 3 phase aircraft AC supply = 115 V (RMS) / 400Hz.

TRU = transformer rectifier unit 115V AC to 28V DC.

alternators are STAR wound and can produce 2 voltages.

CIVIL = in Capaciters the current I leads the Voltage which leads the current I in inductors L.

J3E = HF comms // A3E = VHF comms // A8W = ILS // A9W = VOR // PON = DME
NON = NDB carrier wave // A1A = NDB ident // A2A = alternative NDB ident

sky waves refract from the ionosphere // space waves are line of sight waves.

force = mass x acceleration // momentum = mass x velocity // work = force x distance

power =

the ratio of air to fuel which ensures complete combustion = 15:1 by weight.

manifold pressure is absolute pressure / boost pressure is relative to ISA pressure at sea level.

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