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Table of Contents
                            Cover
Book title
Contents
Acknowledgements
Preface to the reader
Chapter 1 The particulate nature of matter
	Solids, liquids and gases
	The kinetic theory of matter
	Changes of state
	Diffusion – evidence for moving particles
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 2 Elements, compounds and experimental techniques
	Elements
	Compounds
	Mixtures
	Separating mixtures
	Accuracy in experimental work in the laboratory
	Gels, sols, foams and emulsions
	Mixtures for strength
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 3 Atomic structure and bonding
	Inside atoms
	The arrangement of electrons in atoms
	Ionic bonding
	Covalent bonding
	Glasses and ceramics
	Metallic bonding
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 4 Stoichiometry – chemical calculations
	Relative atomic mass
	Reacting masses
	Calculating moles
	Calculating formulae
	Moles and chemical equations
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 5 Electricity and chemistry
	Electrolysis of lead(II) bromide
	Electrolysis of aluminium oxide
	Electrolysis of aqueous solutions
	Electrolysis of concentrated hydrochloric acid
	Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution
	Electrolysis guidelines
	Electroplating
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 6 Chemical energetics
	Substances from oil
	Fossil fuels
	What is a fuel?
	Alternative sources of energy
	Chemical energy
	Changes of state
	Cells and batteries
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 7 Chemical reactions
	Factors that affect the rate of a reaction
	Enzymes
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 8 Acids, bases and salts
	Acids and alkalis
	Formation of salts
	Crystal hydrates
	Solubility of salts in water
	Titration
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 9 The Periodic Table
	Development of the Periodic Table
	Electronic structure and the Periodic Table
	Group I – the alkali metals
	Group II – the alkaline earth metals
	Group VII – the halogens
	Group 0 – the noble gases
	Transition elements
	The position of hydrogen
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 10 Metals
	Metal reactions
	Decomposition of metal nitrates, carbonates, oxides and hydroxides
	Reactivity of metals and their uses
	Identifying metal ions
	Discovery of metals and their extraction
	Metal waste
	Rusting of iron
	Alloys
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 11 Air and water
	The air
	How do we get the useful gases we need from the air?
	Ammonia – an important nitrogen-containing chemical
	Artificial fertilisers
	Atmospheric pollution
	Water
	The water cycle
	Hardness in water
	Water pollution and treatment
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 12 Sulfur
	Sulfur – the element
	Sulfur dioxide
	Sulfuric acid
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 13 Inorganic carbon chemistry
	Limestone
	Carbonates
	Carbon dioxide
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 14 Organic chemistry 1
	Alkanes
	The chemical behaviour of alkanes
	Alkenes
	The chemical behaviour of alkenes
	A special addition reaction of alkene molecules
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 15 Organic chemistry 2
	Alcohols (R—OH)
	Biotechnology
	Carboxylic acids
	Soaps and detergents
	Condensation polymers
	Some biopolymers
	Pharmaceuticals
	Checklist
	Additional questions
Chapter 16 Experimental chemistry
	Objectives for experimental skills and investigations
	Suggestions for practical work and assessment
	Notes on qualitative analysis
	Revision and exam-style questions
	Alternative to practical paper
	Theory
	The Periodic Table of the elements
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	X
	Y
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

ii

Chemistry
Third Edition

Bryan Earl
Doug Wilford

Cambridge

IGCSE
®

NEW


FOR
2014

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Page 156

Transition elements

145

Figure 9.17 Everyday uses of transition elements and their compounds. They are often known as the ‘everyday metals’.

e The alloy stainless steel contains a high proportion of chromium, which
makes it corrosion resistant.

d This bucket has been coated with zinc to prevent the steel of the
bucket corroding.

c Monel is an alloy of nickel and copper. It is extremely resistant to
corrosion, even that caused by sea water.

b These gates are made of iron. Iron can easily be moulded into different
shapes.

a Copper is used in many situations which involve good heat and
electrical conduction. It is also used in medallions and bracelets.

• They form simple ions with more than one
oxidation state. (For a discussion of oxidation
states see Chapter 3, p. 43.) For example,
copper forms Cu+ (Cu(i)) and Cu2+ (Cu(ii)),
in compounds such as Cu2O and CuSO4, and
iron forms Fe2+ (Fe(ii)) and Fe3+ (Fe(iii)), in
compounds such as FeSO4 and FeCl3.

• They form more complicated ions with high
oxidation states. For example, chromium forms
the dichromate(vi) ion, Cr2O7

2−, which contains
chromium with a +6 oxidation state (Cr(vi)) and
manganese forms the manganate(vii) ion, MnO4

−,
which contains manganese with a +7 oxidation
state (Mn(vii)).

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Page 157

9 THe perIOdIC Table

146

b The coloured compounds of transition elements can be seen in these
pottery glazes.

Figure 9.18

a Some solutions of coloured transition element compounds.

●● The position of
hydrogen

Hydrogen is often placed by itself in the Periodic
Table. This is because the properties of hydrogen
are unique. However, profi table comparisons can
be made with the other elements. It is often shown
at the top of either Group I or Group VII, but it
cannot fi t easily into the trends shown by either
group; see Table 9.7.
Table 9.7 Comparison of hydrogen with lithium and fl uorine.

Lithium Hydrogen Fluorine

Solid Gas Gas

Forms a positive ion Forms positive or
negative ions

Forms a negative ion

1 electron in outer
energy level

1 electron in outer
energy level

1 electron short of a
full outer energy level

Loses 1 electron to
form a noble gas
confi guration

Needs 1 electron to
form a noble gas
confi guration

Needs 1 electron to
form a noble gas
confi guration

Questions
1 Look at the photographs in Figure 9.17 (p. 145) and decide

which properties are important when considering the
particular use the metal is being put to.

2 Which groups in the Periodic Table contain:
a only metals?
b only non-metals?
c both metals and non-metals?

Checklist
After studying Chapter 9 you should know and understand the
following terms.

• Alkali metals The six metallic elements found in Group I
of the Periodic Table.

• Alkaline earth metals The six metallic elements found in
Group II of the Periodic Table.

• Displacement reaction A reaction in which a more
reactive element displaces a less reactive element from
solution.

• Group A vertical column of the Periodic Table containing
elements with similar properties with the same number
of electrons in their outer energy levels. They have an
increasing number of inner energy levels as you descend the
group.

• Halogens The elements found in Group VII of the Periodic
Table.

• Metalloid (semi-metal) Any of the class of chemical
elements intermediate in properties between metals and
non-metals, for example boron and silicon.

• Noble gases The unreactive gases found in Group 0 of
the Periodic Table.

• Periodic Table A table of elements arranged in order of
increasing proton number to show the similarities of the
chemical elements with related electronic structures.

• Periods Horizontal rows of the Periodic Table. Within a
period the atoms of all the elements have the same number
of occupied energy levels but have an increasing number of
electrons in the outer energy level.

• Transition elements The elements found in the centre of
the Periodic Table, between Groups II and III.

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Page 311

300

INDEX

effect of light 108–9
effect of pressure 107
effect of surface area 105–6
effect of temperature 108

reactivity series 150, 153–5, 168, 257
recycling 161, 166, 168, 229
redox reactions 14, 30, 39, 44

examples 44, 154, 155, 215, 251
reducing agents 14, 30, 44, 56
reduction 14, 30, 39, 57

in electrolysis 73, 75, 85
relative atomic mass (Ar) 37, 57, 59, 61
relative formula mass (RFM) 59, 70
relative molecular mass (Mr) 62, 70
renewable energy 93, 100
residues 18, 30
respiration 172, 212, 215, 236, 247
reversible reactions 120, 128, 177, 193,

200, 258
Rf values 23, 30
rock salt 158
rubidium 138, 157
rusting 161, 168, 258

prevention of 161–3, 168
Rutherford, Ernest 33, 136

sacrificial protection 163–4
safety 251
salicylic acid 238
salt see sodium chloride
salt hydrates 127–8, 132, 256, 257
salts 122, 256

preparation 123–5
solubility 129, 256
tests for 126–7

saponification 239, 248
saturated hydrocarbons 218, 230
saturated solutions 19, 30
scum 188, 240
separating funnels 20–1
separation of mixtures 253

liquid/liquid mixtures 20–2
solid/liquid mixtures 17–20
solid/solid mixtures 22–4

sewage treatment 191–2
silver 11, 150, 157, 160
silver bromide 109, 122
silver oxide 152
simple molecular structures 49, 57
slag 159, 208
slaked lime see calcium hydroxide
soapless detergents 188, 203, 240, 248
soaps 239–40, 248, 260

hard water and 188, 259
soda glass 54, 209
sodium 12, 138–9, 149, 256

extraction by electrolysis 158
reactivity 138–9, 150, 151, 153
structure 35, 38, 39, 138, 140

sodium carbonate 14, 122, 127

sodium chloride 4, 122
electrolysis 78–9
extraction from sea water 19
ionic bonding 39–40
structure 2, 3, 41, 42

sodium hydrogencarbonate 126, 215
sodium hydrogensulfate 127
sodium hydroxide 14, 121, 124

reaction with hydrochloric acid 121,
124, 129–31

reaction with sulfuric acid 131–2,
201

tests for metal ions 80, 155–6, 262
uses 79

sodium nitrate 152
sodium stearate 122, 188, 239
sodium sulfate 125, 127
sodium thiosulfate, reaction with

hydrochloric acid 107–8
solid/liquid mixtures, separation 17–20
solids 2, 3, 8

changes of state 4, 5
solubility 17, 30

solid/solid mixtures, separation 22–4
sols 26, 27, 30, 253
solubility 30, 125, 129, 132

of salts 129, 256
of solids 17, 30

soluble bases 124
soluble salts 123–5
solutes 17, 30
solutions 17, 30

calculating moles 63–4, 67–8, 69
concentration of 63–4, 67–8

solvent extraction 23–4
solvents 17, 30
Sørenson, Søren 118
sparingly soluble substances 125
spectator ions 121
spectroscopy 15–16
spot tests 126–7
stalactites and stalagmites 188
starch 242–3, 260–1
states of matter 1–3, 8, 15, 251

changes of state 4–5, 97–8, 252
steam re-forming 177
steel

production 165–6, 208
recycling 166
rust prevention 161–3
types 166

stopwatches 25
stratosphere 171, 172, 173, 193
strong acids 120, 132
strong alkalis 121, 132
strontium 36, 140
structural isomerism 220
sublimation 5, 8, 22, 252
substitution reactions 221, 230
sugar (sucrose)

extraction from cane 23–4
reaction with concentrated sulfuric

acid 202
sulfates 122, 201, 203

tests for 126, 132, 201, 262
sulfites, test for 262
sulfur 12, 197, 259

properties 4, 11, 197
reaction with iron 15, 16–17
structure 35, 38

sulfur dioxide 183–4, 197–9
test for 263

sulfuric acid 14, 259
manufacture 199–200
as oxidising agent 44
properties 201, 202–3
reaction with copper(II) oxide 125,

201
reaction with sodium hydroxide 131–

2, 201
uses 200–1

sulfurous acid 120
supercooled liquids 54, 57, 253
surface area, effect on reaction

rate 105–6
suspensions 18

tapping off 159
temperature

during changes of state 4, 5
effect on equilibrium processes 178,

200
effect on reaction rate 108
measurement of 25

temporary water hardness 187, 188,
259

Terylene 241–2
theoretical yield 68
thermal cracking 223, 230
thermal decomposition 97, 209, 211,

215, 256
Thermit reaction 154, 257
thermometers 25
thermosoftening and thermosetting

plastics 228, 230, 260
thermosphere 171, 173
time, measurement of 25
tin(II) fluoride 122
titration 124, 129–32, 256
transition elements 136, 137, 144–6, 257
transpiration 187, 193
trends 137, 138–9
Triads, Law of 135
troposphere 171, 173, 193

universal indicator 118
unsaturated fats 224
unsaturated hydrocarbons 223, 230, 260

test for 225, 230
uranium 35, 36, 93

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301

INDEX

valency (combining power) 43, 44–5,
57

Valium 246
vanadium(V) oxide, as catalyst 110
van der Waals’ bonds (forces) 49, 51,

218
vaporisation, enthalpy of 97–8, 100
verdigris 164
vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 120, 239
volume, measurement of 26
von Liebig, Justus 119
vulcanisation of rubber 197

washing soda 189
water 1, 171, 184–5, 259

electrolysis 77–8, 185
extraction from salt water 20

hardness 187–9, 193, 259
properties 4, 185–6
reaction with ammonia 121, 179–80
reaction with metals 151, 256
structure 13–14, 47, 48
test for 185, 263

water of crystallisation 127–9, 132
water cycle 186–7, 193
water pollution 76, 190, 192, 193
water treatment 28, 190–1
weak acids 120–1, 132
weak alkalis 121, 132
weak electrolytes 72, 254
Wiener, Norbert 7
Winkler, Clemens 136
Wöhler, Friedrich 74, 157
wood 28, 29

xenon 13, 143, 173
X-ray diffraction (crystallography) 2–3,

40–1, 57

yeast 236
yoghurt production 113

zinc 35, 145
extraction from ore 160
properties 11, 144, 150
reaction with copper(II) nitrate 155
reaction with sulfuric acid 201
test for salts 80, 262

zinc blende 158, 197
zinc hydroxide 156
zinc oxide 156, 160
zinc sulfide 160

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