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TitleDana Sirbu_Bogdana Nasui - Igiena Alimentatiei Si Nutritiei_Medicina (1)
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Editura Medical Universitar



2014

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5.3.1 Valoarea nutritivă:

Macronutrienţii:

Proteinele: reprezintă 14 g% - cel mai echilibrat conţinut de aminoacizi; eficienţa

proteică a proteinelor din ou este de 3,8 g.

Gălbenuş – ovovitelina (78%), ovolivetina, fosvitina

Albuş – ovalbumina, ovomucina, ovotransferina, ovomucoid (antienzimă-

inhibitor al tripsinei), ovoglobulina, lizozim, avidina (antivitamină care are efect

de antibiotină, fierberea oului inactivează avidina)

- sărac in nucleoproteine- se recomandă în guta, hiperuricemie.
Lipidele: reprezintă 12 g% - se găsesc în gălbenuş

- reprezentate de trigliceride (majoritatea - 63%), fosfolipide (33%), steride
(4%). Raportul lecitina/colesterol = 6/1

Conţine acid oleic 52%, acid palmitic 25%, APNS 12-14%

Lipidele sunt fin emulsionate si au puternice efecte colecistochinetice .

Glucide – nu are ( se găsesc urme în compoziţia glicoproteinelor)



Micronutrienţii

Sărurile minerale: gălbenuşul conţine în cantitate de circa două ori mai mare

săruri minerale faţă de albuş

Gălbenuş: fosfor, calciu, fier

Albuş: sulf, clor, fosfor

Mai furnizează mici cantităţi de: Cu, Al, Mn, Zn, F, I.

- prin metabolizarea oului → miliechivalenţi acizi.
Vitaminele: liposolubile exclusiv în gălbenuş = comoară de vitamine;
Un gălbenuş acoperă → vitamine A (30-50% din nevoia zilnică), vitamina E (50%

din nevoia zilnică), vitamină D (25% din nevoia zilnică)

hidrosolubile: vitamina B12- 100% din necesarul zilnic, din
grupul B (riboflavina este egal distribuită în albuş şi gălbenuş): B1, B2, B6 –
10%; ac. folic aproape 100%

- Oul este sărac în vitamina PP şi este lipsit de vitamina C



Digestibilitatea oului se face relativ uşor. El excită mai puţin secreţia gastrică decît

carnea. Cel mai bine tolerat este oul fiert moale. Oul fiert tare sau omleta sunt mai

indigeste. Se recomandă albuşul fiert în dietele hipocalorice.



5.3.2 Avantajele şi dezavantajele consumului, raţia zilnic

Avantaje:

1.proteine de clasa I

2.comoară de vitamine liposolubile

3.sursă de lecitină.

Dezavantaje:

1. aterogene şi colesterolemiante (?)

2. acidifiante

3. lipsite de vitamina C

Raţia zilnică: Adulţi: 4-5 ouă/săptămână; copii şi adolescenţi 1 ou/zi.

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5.3.3 Riscuri de îmbolnăvire:

 : Salmonela -
Stafilicoci

toxic: mucegaiuri
metale toxice, micotoxine.





5.4.Grupa a IV-a. Legume și fructe



Grupa a IV-



Clasificare:

Legume -

-
- tuberculi: cartofi, napi
-
-
-

Fructe - : mere, pere, gutui

- cu sâmburi tari
- citrice
- : nuci, alune, migdale
- bace
-



5.4.1 Valoarea nutritivă

Macronutrienţii

Proteinele - sunt slab reprezentate 1-





Lipidele sunt slab reprezentate 0,1-0,6%;

AGNS.

Glucidele- sunt cele mai bine reprezentate 2-20g%

- -struguri; fructoza din fructele cu

- mere, pere, gutui ; zaharoza din prune), dizaharide.

- polizaharide digerabile-

- polizaharide nedigerabile - fibre alimentare: 2- 4g% (hemiceluloze,

pec

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