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United States
Department of

Forest Service

Research Station

General Technical
Report NE-326

Proceedings of the 2004
Northeastern Recreation
Research Symposium
March 28-30, 2004
Bolton Landing, New York

Page 2

Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium Policy Statement

The Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium seeks to foster quality information exchange
between recreation, tourism, and resource managers and researchers throughout the Northeast.
The forum provides opportunities for recreation and tourism research managers from different
agencies, state, and government levels, as well as those in the private sector to discuss current
issues, problems, and research applications in the field. Students and all those interested in
continuing education in recreation and tourism management are particularly welcome.


Robert Bristow, Westfield State College
Kelly Bricker, West Virginia University
Chad Dawson, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Ellen Drogin Rodgers, George Mason University
Alan Graefe, Penn State
Andy Holdnak, University of West Florida
Deb Kerstetter, Penn State
Diane Kuehn, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Walter Kuentzel, University of Vermont
Bruce Lord, Penn State
Tom More, USDA Forest Service - Northeastern Research Station
Andrew Mowen, Penn State University
Jim Murdy, University of New Haven
Robert Robertson, University of New Hampshire
David Solan, Mansfield University
Rudy Shuster, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Sharon Todd, SUNY Cortland
Gail Vander Stoep, Michigan State University
Hans Vogelsong, East Carolina University
Greg Wright, USDA Forest Service - Green Mountain National Forest

Cover photos courtesy of Mark and Robin Twery.

Note: These proceedings have been prepared using electronic and hard copy supplied by the authors. While
some editing has been done, the authors are responsible for the content and the accuracy of their papers.

The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this publication is for the information and convenience of the
reader. Such use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
or the Forest Service of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.

Page 216

208 Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium GTR-NE-326

Paviagua, A. (2002). Urban-rural migration, tourism
entrepreneurs and rural restructuring in Spain.
Tourism Geographies, 4(4), 349-371.

Pelligrino, A. (2000). Trends in international migration
in Latin America and the Caribbean. UNESCO.
Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Quinn, N.J., & Strickland, R. (1994) Ecotourism in a
tourist-based Caribbean economy. North-South: The
magazine of the Americas, 4(2), 42-47.

Rome, A. and Romero, B. (1998). Enhancing
conservation education opportunities in nature
reserves in tropical countries: A case study in Belize.
Journal of Environmental Education, 30, 34-37.

Secrétairie d’Etat au Tourisme/Haïti. (1996). Plan
Directeur du Tourisme. Projet PNUD/HAI/95/015.
151 p.

Spradley, J. P. (1979). The ethnographic interview. New
York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Tisdell, C. A. (1983). Conserving living resources in
third world countries: economic and social issues.
International Journal of Environmental Studies, 22,

Venugopal, V. K. (1999). Temporal change detection
of Muncie, Indiana and its environs. Unpublished
master’s thesis, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana,

Weller, S. C., & Romney, A. K. (1988). Systematic Data
Collection. Qualitative Research Methods Series. Vol.
10. New Park: Sage Publications Inc.

Wilson, S., Fesenmaier, D. R., Fesenmaier, J., & Van
Es, J. C. (2001) Factors for success in rural tourism
development. Journal of Travel Research, 40(2), 132-

Wyss, F. (2003). Seminar on rural tourism and its
contribution to job creation and heritage conservation.
Basic introductory report. WTO: CAM/40/SEM/IIB.

Page 217

209Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium GTR-NE-326


as a target to be reached with a distinct marketing mix”
(p.31). In 1973 the National Tourism Resources Review
Commission defi ned a tourist as “A tourist is one who
travels away from home for a distance of at least 50 miles
(one way) for business, pleasure, personal affairs, or any
other purpose except to commute to work, whether he/
she stays overnight or returns the same day” (McIntosh
et al. 1998, p.11-12). Two of the methods mentioned
by Swarbrooke and Horner for segmenting the business
tourism market are indicated in this defi nition, which are
distance traveled and length of stay.

3.0 Literature Review

In most of the literature the word business travel is
used to describe the segment of the tourism market
that encompasses traveling for the primary purpose of
business. However, Swarbrook & Horner (2001) say
that it should be called business tourism and that there
is a distinctly different defi nition that separates the two
terms. Business tourism is stated as “people traveling for
purposes which are related to their work, encompasses
all aspects of the experience of the business traveler”
(Davidson 1994). Business travel however, solely focuses
on the movement of the business traveler from point A
to point B. The two terms tend to be used synonymously
throughout research and thus in this paper as well.

Traveling to attend meetings is the primary reason for
business travel. About 20 percent of all business trips
are for the purpose of attending corporate meetings
or conventions (Mill 1990). Most often, conferences
and conventions are an important component of travel
and tourism in a region (Grado et al. 1998). Nearly
50 percent of all business tourists attend meetings
or conventions as the primary purpose of their trip,
with another 12 percent reporting it as the secondary
purpose of their trip (Survey of Business Travelers
1994). Meeting, conventions, and expositions generate
tremendous amount of revenue within the hospitality
industry. Successful Meetings magazine’s “State of the
Industry” report in 2001 indicated that current spending
on meetings totaled $112.1 billion, broken down into
three categories.

Survey of Business Travelers, stated that 85 percent of
business tourists stay overnight while on trips. Because
business tourists stay overnight there is greater economic

Brandi Nice
University of Florida
Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Tourism
300 Florida Gym/ PO Box 118208
Gainesville, FL 32611

Lori Pennington-Gray
Assistant Professor
University of Florida


This study was an attempt to segment the business tourist
market in north-central Florida county, and evaluate the
business tourist’s behavior before and during the business
trip with respect to gathering information as well activity
participation while at the destination. The theoretical
framework for this study is market segmentation. Market
segmentation is an extremely important tool in evaluating
tourism marketing. The study found that business
tourists participated in very few activities while in the
county and used very few sources to gather information
before traveling to Alachua County on business. Future
research as to how to reach this type of tourist with
regards to marketing local activities and attractions would
benefi t Visitor and Convention Bureaus in many counties
across the state of Florida and possibly the United States.

1.0 Introduction

Tourism is a phenomenon that warrants investigation due
to its economic and social impacts to a region or country.
Business tourism has become an important segment
in the tourism industry. The meetings and convention
sector of the tourism industry is a large part of business
tourism. It is important for destinations to understand
who the business tourist is in order to effectively target
this specifi c market. Destinations also need to understand
the behavior of the business tourist. Specifi cally what
activities they are participating in and how they obtain
the information about the destination and these activities.

2.0 Theoretical Framework

Because business tourism is an extremely important
segment of the tourism industry the theoretical
framework for this study is market segmentation. Market
segmentation is an extremely important tool in evaluating
tourism marketing (Perdue & Pitegoff 1984). Schiffman
and Kanuk (1978) defi ned market segmentation as
“the process of dividing a potential market into distinct
subsets of consumers and selecting one or more segments

Page 431

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Bricker, Kelly, comp., ed. 2005. Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation

Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-326. Newtown Square, PA: U.S.

Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 422 p.

Contains articles presented at the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research

Symposium. Contents cover place attachment, diverse populations, tourism

economics, visitor management, tourism development, perceptions, preferences and

attitudes, trends, visitor choice and resource attributes, norms and carrying capacity,

specialization and participant development, planning and administration, submitted

papers from the poster session.

Keywords: outdoor, visitor management, place attachment, tourism development,

tourism, carrying capacity, recreation behavior

Page 432

Headquarters of the Northeastern Research Station is in Newtown Square,
Pennsylvania. Field laboratories are maintained at:

Amherst, Massachusetts, in cooperation with the University of Massachusetts

Burlington, Vermont, in cooperation with the University of Vermont

Delaware, Ohio

Durham, New Hampshire, in cooperation with the University of New Hampshire

Hamden, Connecticut, in cooperation with Yale University

Morgantown, West Virginia, in cooperation with West Virginia University

Parsons, West Virginia

Princeton, West Virginia

Syracuse, New York, in cooperation with the State University of New York, Col-
lege of Environmental Sciences and Forestry at Syracuse University

Warren, Pennsylvania

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activi-
ties on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs,
sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.)
Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program infor-
mation (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact the USDA's TARGET Center at
(202)720-2600 (voice and TDD).

To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W,
Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410, or call
(202)720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

“Caring for the Land and Serving People Through Research”

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