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TitleEducate Children at Risk Factors Affecting Cohort Survival Rate - Cagape Final Paper
TagsRural Poverty Malnutrition Poverty Poverty & Homelessness Primary Education
File Size165.2 KB
Total Pages12
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Educate Children At Risk: Factors Affecting The Cohort Survival Rate


College Board Secretary/Campus Academic Head

JH Cerilles State College, Pagadian City Campus, Balangasan, Pagadian City, Philippines

[email protected]


Cohort Survival Rate is the measure of the percentage of pupils enrolled in the first grade who
finishes Grade IV. Factors such as rural poverty, health issues such as nutrition and vitamin A
supplementation, lack of school buildings, inaccessibility of schools are driving pupils away
from schooling. This study was conducted in 10 disparity barangays in Zamboanga del Sur,
covered under the 6th Country Program for Children by the UNICEF. Alternative livelihood helps
resolve the concern.


The Philippine 1987 Constitution declared in Section 17 that “the State shall give priority to
education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism,
accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development” (Bernas, 2003).
The emphasis placed on education in this context far exceeds the present-day interventions in
relation to improved academic outcomes among pupils, but also encompasses the active
participation of all elementary pupils and making them ready for higher educational
opportunities by ensuring that they graduate in the primary or elementary level.

In the Philippine setting, almost all provinces and cities, including municipalities have
elementary schools in operation however, there are much more to be constructed in barangays
situated from far away localities. Zamboanga del Sur is not an exception. There are much to be
desired in terms of classroom construction as well as the identification of barangays that needs

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teachers and classrooms to supplement the educational needs of the general populace. This may
also be one of the factors that affect Cohort Survival Rate in the Province. Because of these
realities, the study has been undertaken to understand the factors affecting cohort survival. This
study was conducted in 12 areas namely, Barangay Bogo Kapalaran in the Municipality of
Molave, Barangay Boloron, in the Municipality of Midsalip, Barangays Sta. Lucia and San
Pedro in the City of Pagadian, Barangay Libertad in the Municipality of Dumingag, Poblacion in
the Municipality of Pitogo, barangay Lumbog in the Municipality of Margosatubig, Barangay
Benuatan in the Municipality of Dinas, in Barangay Lunib in the Municipality of V. Sagun,
Barangay Salambuyan in the Municipality of Lapuyan, Barangay Diplo in the Municipality of
Kumalarang and at the Poblacion in the Municipality of Lakewood.


The National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB) defined cohort survival as, “a measure of the
efficiency and effectiveness of the delivery of education services in the country, and is defined as
the percentage of enrollees at the beginning grade or year in a given school year who reached the
final grade or year of the elementary or secondary level” (Virola, 2007). Based on this definition,
the “cohort survival rate was at 69.84 percent in the elementary level. This means that about 70
students out of a hundred who entered grade one reached grade six. For the secondary
level,cohort survival rate was at 65.83 percent” (Basic Education at a Glance, 2005).

The United Nations Statistical Institute for Asia and the Pacific defines this as “The percentage
of a cohort of pupils enrolled in grade 1 of the primary level of education in a given school year
who are expected to reach a specific grade (Survival rate to Grade 5)” (UNSIAP, 2005).

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It uses survey questionnaires in the survey. In gathering all the data, a research team was
organized principally from the Provincial Government of Zamboanga del Sur. This study is a
descriptive-qualitative survey thus uses simple percentages and frequencies. It uses random
sampling technique.


From the areas identified as disparity barangays, the study has surveyed a total of 2,638 sampling
size comprising 30% of the total population (household population) size of 8,794. The
respondents are taken to represent per household and could either be the husband or the wife.
Only one respondent is taken from one household.

Of these respondents, 76% are female and only 24% are male. This provided a total picture of
the domesticity of female members of the household when the survey was conducted in the areas
identified as disparity areas. The researcher has found mostly women tending to the household as
men (husbands) are working, mostly on daytime. Of these, 90% of the respondents said they are
already married. In terms of educational attainment, only 5% of these respondents said that they
have finished college education compared to 24% of whom who said that they have “some
elementary education”, but was not able to graduate. In terms of employments, 54% were
unemployed while 39% are self-employed, either as a store owner, peddler or farmer. In terms of
age, most of the respondents were between the age bracket of 37-40 years old who earns less
than Php 2,000 income per month (52%), roughly about US 41.57 per month in the most recent
currency conversion, or US$ 1.34 per day. 38% of these respondents from San Pedro, in
Pagadian City said they have the most number of school-aged children which totaled to 1,011
school children, followed by Sta, Lucia, still in Pagadian City with at least 926 school children.
The areas covered with less number of school-age children in the household is in Salambuyan,
Lapuyan with at least, 131 school-age children.

There are a total of 4,895 school-age children in the identified disparity barangays. By
distribution, at six (6) years old category, of these school-age children, 321 are presently enrolled
in Grade I. Among the 7 years old category, 419 of these are in Grade I and 146 are in Grade II,
while 12 are not in school. At the 8 years old category, 218 children are enrolled in Grade I, 282
are in Grade II, 145 are in Grade III, 9 are in Grade IV while 5 are not in school. At the 9 years
old category, 94 are in Grade I, 136 are in Grade II, 250 are in Grade III, 129 are in Grade IV, 8
are in Grade V and 10 are not in school. At the 10 years old category, 48 are enrolled in Grade I,
70 are in Grade II, 128 are in Grade III, 214 are in Grade IV, 118 are in Grade V, 8 are in Grade
VI while 10 are not in school. At the 11 years old category, 17 are enrolled in Grade I, 45 are in
Grade II, 57 are in Grade III, 111 are in Grade IV, 199 are in Grade V, 124 are in Grade VI while
8 are not in school and 3 are in First year high school. At the 12 year old category, 16 are

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enrolled in Grade I, 30 are in Grade II, 59 are in Grade III, 76 are in Grade IV, 122 are in Grade
V, 208 are in Grade VI while 21 are not in school and 52 are in High School. In the 13 year old
category, 10 are enrolled in Grade I, 13 are enrolled in Grade II, 30 are in Grade III, 31 are in
Grade IV, 69 are in Grade V, 114 are in Grade VI while 22 are not in school, and at this age, 132
are in High school. At the 14 years old category, 2 are in Grade I, 6 are in Grade II, 15 are in
Grade III, 21 are in Grade IV, 42 are in Grade V, 59 are in Grade VI while 19 are not in school
and 119 are in High School. At the 15 years old category, 1 child is enrolled in Grade I, 1 in
Grade II, 6 are in Grade III, 17 are in Grade IV, 19 are in Grade V, 34 are in Grade VI while 24
are not in school and 149 are in High School.

Among Grade I pupils being covered in the survey, the barangay that has the highest registered
pupils is San Pedro, in the City of Pagadian with a total of 72 pupils followed by Barangay
Poblacion in the Municipality if Pitogo. The least is Libertad, Dumingag which has only 8 pupils
enrolled in Grade I. Among the pupils in Grade VI, the highest areas with 11 years old presently
enrolled is Sta. Lucia in Pagadian City with 27, briefly followed by San Pedro, still in Pagadian
City with 26 pupils and Poblacion, Pitogo with 23 pupils. The least among the disparity
barangays Salambuyan, Lapuyan with only 1 pupil enrolled at this age category. When asked
whether their children goes to school, with no particular reference as which grade levels and in
reference to children age between 6-12 years old, the respondents replied yes (98%) compared to
those who said no (2%). Among those who said NO, the primary concern was No money to
spend on school (63%), followed briefly by No School uniform, No notebooks, papers and
pencils, no schoolbag, all at 32%. Another 30% said Hard up times is the reason why their
children are not in school.

Although a huge percentage of those covered in the survey have children in school, the focus of
the study is now pointed towards those who replied NO to the previous question if their child
goes to school.

Among those who said that their child has stopped going to school, the concentration of those
pupils who last attended school at a specific grade level is from Grade III, IV and V, the highest
being in Grade V with 162 dropouts followed by Grade IV with 160 dropouts.

The main reason for those who decided not to go school is poverty (50%) followed by high cost
of education (14%), although in the Philippines and even in these areas, primary education is
free and relatively cheap. Poverty and high cost of education are two of the factors, considerably
affecting school attendance and participation among pupils in school. These concerns are being
addressed by one of the factors also that affect school attendance and participation and that is
earning a living 11% and doing farm work 7%. These confluences are making it hard for pupils
to stay in school after they had hurdle the academic rudiments of Grade I and II, respectively.
Understandably, classroom requirements among Grades III, IV and V are also relatively more

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finance their daily needs, which includes meals for their children prior to going to school and the
mid-day lunch. Cassava planting is a viable option to make livelihood in the barangay level work
for every farmer since the cassava produce can be harvested after 10 months and it do not
necessarily require huge open tracks of land for plantation purposes. This is also small-scale but
the potential for earning additional income is higher.

Also, extensive and intensified intervention of the UNICEF and the Province will ensure
improved CHR among pupils, thus ensuring more pupils enrolling in secondary and eventually,
in the higher education sector.

(2005). Retrieved July 27, 2009, from UNSIAP:

Asian Development Bank. (2009). Retrieved August 1, 2009, from Policy on

Basic Education at a Glance. (2005, February 5). Retrieved August 5, 2009, from
Senate Economic Planning Office:

Bernas, J. G. (2003). The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A
Commentary. Quezon City: Rex Printing Company, Inc.

(2001). FAO Nutrition Country Profile. Rome: FAO.

Human Development Report . (2009, January 2). Retrieved August 18, 2009, from
United Nations Development Programme:

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