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Table of Contents
                            Title
CONTENTS
PREFACE
LIST OF APPLICATION EXAMPLES
Chapter 1: Introduction
	I. INTRODUCTION
	II. FOOD SYSTEM
	III. FOOD PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
	IV. FOOD PLANT ECONOMICS
	V. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS
		1. Food Preservation Plants
		2. Food Manufacturing Plants
		3. Food Ingredients Plants
	VI. FOOD RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
		1. Food Science
		2. Food Engineering
	REFERENCES
	Appendices
Chapter 2: Structure of the Food Industry
	I. INTRODUCTION
	II. FOOD SYSTEMS
		1. The US Food System
		2. The US Food Processing Industry
			a. Industry Classification
			b. Food Consumption
			c. Value Added in Food Processing
			d. Raw Materials
			e. Labor and Energy
		3. Food Trade Industries
		4. The European Food Processing Industry
			a. Dairy Industry
			b. Sugar
			c. Edible Oils
			d. Fruits and Vegetables
			e. Grain Milling
			f. Baking Industry
			g. Confectionery
			h. Meat Industry
			i. Fish Industry
			k. Coffee Industry
		5. Multinational Food Companies
		6. Food Distribution Systems
	REFERENCES
	Appendices
Chapter 3: Overview of Food Process and Plant Design
	I. INTRODUCTION
	II. FOOD PROCESS DESIGN
		1. Process Flowsheets
		2. Material and Energy Balances
		3. Sizing and Costing of Equipment
	III. FOOD PLANT DESIGN
		1. Plant Buildings
			a. Plant Location
			b. Building Construction
		2. Food Plant Safety
		3. Hygienic Design
		4. Cleaning of Equipment
		5. Plant Maintenance
	IV. FOOD PLANT UTILITIES
		1. Process Water
		2. Steam
		3. Electricity
		4. Plant Effluents
	V. FOOD PLANT ECONOMICS
		1. Capital Investment Cost
		2. Operating Expenses
		3. Food Plant Logistics
	REFERENCES
	Appendices
Chapter 4: Process Engineering Economics
	I. MONEY FLOW IN A BUSINESS ENTERPRISE
	II. CAPITAL COST
		1. Fixed Capital Cost
		2. Working Capital Cost
	III. MANUFACTURING COST
	IV. CASH FLOW ANALYSIS
		1. Construction Period
		2. Operating Period
		3. Discounted Cash Flow
	V. PLANT PROFITABILITY
	VI. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
		NOMENCLATURE
	REFERENCES
	Appendices
Chapter 5: Capital Cost of Food Plants
	I. INTRODUCTION
		1. Unit Operations in Food Processing
		2. Mechanical Processes
			a. Mechanical Transport Operations
				i. Transport of Fluid Foods
				ii. Mechanical Conveyors
			b. Mechanical Processing Operations
			c. Mechanical Separation Operations
		3. Food Packaging Processes
	II. QUOTATIONS FROM FABRICATORS
	III. EQUIPMENT COST ESTIMATION
		1. Effect of Material of Construction
		2. Effect of Pressure on Equipment Cost
		3. Effect of Inflation on Equipment Cost
	IV. DATA FOR PRELIMINARY EQUIPMENT COST ESTIMATION
	V. SHORT-CUT EQUIPMENT SIZING
		1. Pumps and Blowers
		2. Compressors
		3. Conveyor Belts
		4. Screw Conveyors
		5. Size Reduction
		6. Vessels
		7. Heat Exchangers
		8. Evaporators
		9. Dryers
			a. Belt dryer
			b. Rotary dryer
		10. Filters
		11. Continuous Flow Sterilizers
	NOMENCLATURE
	REFERENCES
	Appendices
Chapter 6: Operating Cost of Food Plants
	I. INTRODUCTION
	II. RAW MATERIALS
	III. FOOD PRODUCT COST DATA
		1. Retail Prices
		2. Farm Prices
		3. Retail-to-Farm Price Ratios
	IV. PACKAGING MATERIALS
	V. UTILITITIES
	VI. UTILITY COST ESTIMATING MODEL
		1. Fuel oil Cost
		2. Natural gas Cost
		3. Electricity Cost
		4. Steam Cost
		5. Cooling Water Cost
		6. Refrigeration Cost
		7. Energy-Related Utilities Cost
		8. Nonenergy-Related Utilities Cost
		9. Waste Treatment Cost
	VII. LABOR
	VIII. LABOR COST ESTIMATING MODEL
		1. Factorial Method
		2. Annual Operating Time
		3. Manpower
		4. Labor Rates
	REFERENCES
	Appendices
Chapter 7: Food Preservation Plants
	INTRODUCTION
		1. Food Preservation Plants
		2. Application Examples
	I. TOMATO PASTE PLANT
		1. Process Technology
			a. Raw Materials
			b. Concentrated Tomato Products
			c. Inspecting/Washing
			d. Crushing/Finishing
			e. Concentration
			f. Sterilization/Packing
			g. Plant Effluents
		2. Process Flowsheet
		3. Material and Energy Requirements
		4. Capital Investment
		5. Operating Expenses
		6. Plant Profitability
		7. Sensitivity Analysis
			a. Break-Even Analysis
			b. Effect of Resource Prices and Tax and Debt Characteristics
	II. ORANGE JUICE CONCENTRATE PLANT
		1. Process Technology
			a. Raw Materials
			b. Washing/Grading
			c. Juice Extraction /Finishing
			d. Centrifuging/Debittering
			e. Juice Pasteurization
			f. Juice Concentration
			g. Aseptic Packing and Storage
			h. Peel/Pulp Drying
			i. Peel Oil Extraction
			j. Plant Effluents
		2. Process Flowsheet
		3. Material and Energy Requirements
		4. Capital Investment
		5. Operating Expenses
		6. Plant Profitability
		7. Sensitivity Analysis
	III. UHT STERILIZED MILK PLANT
		1. Process Technology
			a. Raw Material
			b. Separation/Homogenization
			c. UHT Sterilization
			d. Aseptic Packaging
		2. Process Flowsheet
		3. Material and Energy Requirements
		4. Capital Investment
		5. Operating Expenses
		6. Plant Profitability
		7. Sensitivity Analysis
	IV. FRUIT CANNING PLANT
		1. Process Technology
			a. Raw Materials
			b. Washing/Pitting/Peeling/Grading
			b. Filling/Syruping
			c. Sealing/Sterilization of Cans
			d. Labeling/Packing/Storage
		2. Process Flowsheet
		3. Material and Energy Requirements
		4. Capital Investment
		5. Operating Expenses
		6. Plant Profitability
		7. Sensitivity Analysis
	V. VEGETABLE FREEZING PLANT
		1. Process Technology
			a. Raw Materials
			b. Cleaning/Grading/Cutting
			c. Blanching
			d. Freezing/Packing
			e. Storage
		2. Process Flowsheet
		3. Material and Energy Requirements
		4. Capital Investment
		5. Operating Expenses
		6. Plant Profitability
		7. Sensitivity Analysis
	VI. VEGETABLE DEHYDRATION PLANT
		1. Process Technology
			a. Raw Materials
			b. Washing/Peeling
			c. Dicing/Blanching/Sulfiting
			d. Drying
			e. Packing
		2. Process Flowsheet
		3. Material and Energy Requirements
		4. Capital Investment
		5. Operating Expenses
		6. Plant Profitability
		7. Sensitivity Analysis
	VII. TECHNO-ECONOMIC COMPARISON
	VIII. SUPPLIERS OF MAJOR FOOD PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
	REFERENCES
	Appendices
Chapter 8: Food Manufacturing Plants
	INTRODUCTION
	I. BREAD MANUFACTURING PLANT
		1. Process Technology
			a. Bread Ingredients
			b. Dough Preparation
			c. Fermentation
			d. Dough Mixing
			e. Dough Dividing/Rounding
			f. Pre-proofing
			g. Bread Molding/Panning
			h. Proofing
			i. Baking Oven
			j. Depanning/Cooling of Bread
			k. Slicing/Packaging
			l. Storage
			m. Frozen Dough
		2. Process Flowsheet
		3. Material and Energy Requirements
		4. Capital Investment
		5. Operating Expenses
		6. Plant Profitability
		7. Sensitivity Analysis
			a. Break-Even Analysis
			b. Effect of Resource Prices and Tax and Debt Characteristics
	II. YOGURT MANUFACTURING PLANT
		1. Process Technology
			a. Raw Materials
			b. Standardization/Mixing
			c. Homogenization
			d. Heat Treatment
			e. Fermentation
			f. Mixing of Yogurt
			g. Packaging
			h. Cooling/Storage
		2. Process Flowsheet
		3. Material and Energy Requirements
		4. Capital Investment
		5. Operating Expenses
		6. Plant Profitability
		7. Sensitivity Analysis
	III. WINE PROCESSING PLANT
		1. Outline of Process Technology
			a. Raw Materials
			b. Grape Crushing
			c. Juice Expression
			d. Fermentation
			e. Ageing of Wine
			f. Wine Filtration
			g. Bottling of Wine
			h. Bottle Storage
			i. Plant Wastes
		2. Process Flowsheet
		3. Material and Energy Requirements
		4. Capital Investment
		5. Operating Expenses
		6. Plant Profitability
		7. Sensitivity Analysis
	IV. ECONOMIC COMPARISON
	REFERENCES
	Appendices
Chapter 9: Food Ingredients Plants
	INTRODUCTION
	I. BEET SUGAR PLANT
		1. Outline of Process Technology
			a. Raw Materials
			b. Sugar Extraction
			c. Juice Concentration
			d. Sugar Crystallization
			e. Centrifugation
			f. Drying of Sugar
			g. Drying of Beet Pulp
			h. Sugar Molasses
			i. Plant Effluents
			j. Sugar Storage
		2. Preliminary Sugar Plant Design
		3. Outline of Sugar Economics
	II. OVERVIEW OF PROCESS PLANT OPTIMIZATION
		1. Parametric Optimization
		2. Structural Optimization
		3. Cogeneration in Food Processing
	REFERENCES
	Appendices
Appendices
	I. GLOSSARY OF ECONOMIC TERMS
		References
	II. NOTATION AND CONVERSION TO SI UNITS
	III. USEFUL THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER
	IV. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME FOOD MATERIALS
	V. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
	VI. OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS (U)
	VII. ACCOMPANYING CD
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

xviii


FOOD PLANT

ECONOMICS

© 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Page 2

xviii


FOOD SCIENCE

AND TECHNOLOGY

Editorial Advisory Board

Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas Washington State University–Pullman
P. Michael Davidson University of Tennessee–Knoxville
Mark Dreher McNeil Nutritionals, New Brunswick, NJ
Richard W. Hartel University of Wisconsin–Madison

Lekh R. Juneja Taiyo Kagaku Company, Japan
Marcus Karel Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ronald G. Labbe University of Massachusetts–Amherst
Daryl B. Lund University of Wisconsin–Madison

David B. Min The Ohio State University
Leo M. L. Nollet Hogeschool Gent, Belgium
Seppo Salminen University of Turku, Finland

John H. Thorngate III Allied Domecq Technical Services, Napa, CA
Pieter Walstra Wageningen University, The Netherlands

John R. Whitaker University of California–Davis
Rickey Y. Yada University of Guelph, Canada

© 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Page 181

Operating Cost of Food Plants 169

Table 6.10 Typical Personnel Requirements for Various Food Processes

Eqipment Operators

Silo 0.10
Storage tank 0.10
Process vessel 0.20
Agitated jacketed reactor 1.00

Electric motor 0.10
Agitator 0.10
Compressor 0.50
Pump 0.10
Fan 0.10

Conveyor belt 0.10
Belt washer 0.50
Belt dryer 1.00
Belt freezer 1.00

Scraped surface heat exchanger 1.00
Shell and tubes heat enchanger 0.50
Plate heat exchanger 1.00
Tubular evaporator 1.00
Forced circulation evaporator 1.00

Vacuum drum filter 1.00
Plate filter 1.00
Vibrating screen 0.50

Tray dryer 1.00
Vibratory conveyor dryer 1.00
Rotary dryer 1.00
Fluidized bed dryer 1.00

Cutter 1.00
Crusher 1.00
Grinder 1.00
Ball mill 1.00

Centrifuge 1.00
Screw press 1.00
Extruder 1.00
Packaging equipment 1.00

Turbine 1.00
Boiler 1.00




© 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Page 182

170 Chapter 6

fruit juice

frozen bread

arabic bread

white bread

cooking oil

soybean oil

protein

sausages

slaughter products

seafood

frozen shrimp

frozen fish

corn snacks

tortilla chips

quenelles (dumplings)

vinegar

dry yeast

lasagna
pasta

corn starch

parboiled rice

ice cream

yogurt

egg powder

skim milk powder

milk products

blue cheese

mozzarella cheese

frozen vegetables

tomato paste

concentrated juice

fruit puree

apple products

M = 10 F2/3

1

10

100

1000

0.1 1 10

Plant capacity F(t/h)

Workers

100



Figure 6.16 Personnel requirements for several food plants. Data compiled from
Bartholomai (1987).


© 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Page 362

Appendix 351



V. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Fluid (20oC) n K Ea
Water 1.00 0.001 15
Tomato juice 6oBrix 1.00 0.002 16
Orange juice 12oBrix 1.00 0.002 16
Sugar solution 15oBrix 1.00 0.003 18
Sugar solution 65oBrix 1.00 0.045 40
Orange juice 65oBrix 0.76 0.400 40
Tomato paste 32oBrix 0.30 120.0 15
Generalized rheological equation: ηa = K γ

n-1

ηa = apparent viscosity, Pa s; γ = shear rate, 1/s; n = flow behavior index, -;
K = flow consistency coefficient, Pa sn; Ea = activation energy, kJ/mol

VI. OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS (U)

Heating / Cooling U, kW/m2K
Air heating – cooling 0.05 – 0.10
Water heating – cooling 0.5 – 2.5
Steam heating 1.0 – 3.0
Viscous liquid foods 0.2 – 1.0
Evaporation of liquid foods 0.5 – 2.0
Data from Saravacos and Maroulis, 2001.

© 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Page 363

352 Appendix

VII. ACCOMPANYING CD

The book accompanying CD contains the following Excel files:


1. EquipmentCost.xls
2. UtilitiesModel.xls
3. PlantEconomics.xls


The EquipmentCost.xls file calculates the cost of equipment versus its size. Using
appropriate pull down menus a specific equipment or a group of equipment can be
selected. Figures 5.3 of Chapter 5 can be reproduced or modified.

The UtilitiesModel.xls file implements the proposed model of Chapter 6. The utili-
ties cost is calculated versus the crude oil price. Crucial Figure 6.14 can be up-
dated according to current crude oil price.

The PlantEconomics.xls produces the results of Chapters 7 and 8. All the applica-
tions of this book can be updated and modified according the user specifications.






© 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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