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TitleHeavy Fuel Oils - CLU-IN
LanguageEnglish
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Page 1

product dossier no. 98/109

I

heavy fuel oils
Prepared by CONCAWE’s Petroleum Products and Health Management Groups

Reproduction permitted with due acknowledgement

� CONCAWE
Brussels
May 1998

Page 2

product dossier no. 98/109

II

ABSTRACT

The dossier summarizes the physical and chemical properties and toxicological,
health, safety and environmental information on heavy fuel oils.

KEYWORDS

Fuel oil, heavy fuel oil, toxicology, health, environment, review

NOTE

Considerable efforts have been made to assure the accuracy and reliability of the
information contained in this publication. However, neither CONCAWE nor any
company participating in CONCAWE can accept liability for any loss, damage or
injury whatsoever resulting from the use of this information.

This report does not necessarily represent the views of any company participating in
CONCAWE.

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product dossier no. 98/109

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9. DISPOSAL

Heavy fuel oils are primarily used as fuels for combustion and disposal as waste is
seldom necessary. When it is required to dispose of fuel oil, for example, following a
spillage or tank cleaning operations, this should be done through a recognised waste
contractor. In marine applications, all waste fuel oil should be collected and disposed
of on land in accordance with local regulations.

Advice on the handling of waste or spilled material can be obtained from previously
published CONCAWE reports (CONCAWE 1980; 1981; 1983, 1988).

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product dossier no. 98/109

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10. FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS

Heavy fuel oils have flash points above 55� C (Pensky Marten Closed Cup method)
and are not therefore classified as flammable. Flammability limits for fuel vapour/air
mixtures lie between approximately 1.0 to 6.0 % (V/V); autoignition temperatures are
in the range of approximately 220 to 300� C. Ignition of heavy fuel oils at ambient
temperature may be difficult, but if ignited at elevated temperatures, the product will
burn.

However, despite not being classified as flammable, heavy fuel oils are capable of
producing light hydrocarbon vapours in a tank head space at concentrations in the
flammable range (OCIMF 1989). This can occur even when the temperature of the
liquid is below the flash point. In consequence, it is recommended that the head
space of all heavy fuel oil tanks should be considered potentially flammable and
appropriate precautions taken.

In designing heavy fuel oil installations, it is also important to ensure that heating
elements and their corresponding thermostats are always placed below the level of
the tank draw-off line so that they never become uncovered by fuel oil during normal
operations. If they do become uncovered, there could be a danger of an explosion
and subsequent fire from fuel oil contacting over-heated elements or heating coils.

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product dossier no. 98/109

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274-685-1 70592-78-8

Distillates (petroleum), vacuum

A complex combination of hydrocarbons produced by the vacuum distillation of the
residuum from atmospheric distillation of crude oil. It consists of hydrocarbons
having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C15 through C50 and boiling
in the range of approximately 270°C to 600°C (518°F to 1112°F). This stream is
likely to contain 5 wt.% or more of 4- to 6-membered condensed ring aromatic
hydrocarbons.

285-555-9 85117-03-9

Gas oils (petroleum), hydrodesulfurized coker heavy vacuum

A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained by hydrodesulfurization of heavy
coker distillate stocks. It consists predominantly of hydrocarbons having carbon
numbers predominantly in the range C18 to C44 and boiling in the range of
approximately 304°C to 548°C (579°F to 1018°F). Likely to contain 5% or more of 4-
to 6-membered condensed ring aromatic hydrocarbons.

292-657-7 90669-75-3

Residues (petroleum), steam-cracked, distillates

A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained during the production of refined
petroleum tar by the distillation of stream cracked tar. It consists predominantly of
aromatic and other hydrocarbons and organic sulfur compounds.

292-658-2 90669-76-4

Residues (petroleum), vacuum, light

A complex residuum from the vacuum distillation of the residuum from atmospheric
distillation of crude oil. It consists predominantly of hydrocarbons having carbon
numbers predominantly greater than C24 and boiling above approximately 390°C
(734°F).

295-396-7 92045-14-2

Fuel oil, heavy, high-sulfur

A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained by the distillation of crude
petroleum. It consists predominantly of aliphatic, aromatic and cycloaliphatic
hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly higher than C25 and boiling
above approximately 400°C (752°F).

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product dossier no. 98/109

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295-511-0 92061-97-7

Residues (petroleum), catalytic cracking

A complex combination of hydrocarbons produced as the residual fraction from the
distllation of the products from a catalytic cracking process. It consists predominantly
of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly greater than C11 and boiling
above approximately 200°C (392°F).

295-990-6 92201-59-7

Distillates (petroleum), intermediate catalytic cracked, thermally degraded

A complex combination of hydrocarbons produced by the distillation of products from
a catalytic cracking process which has been used as a heat transfer fluid. It consists
predominantly of hydrocarbons boiling in the range of approximately 220°C to 450°C
(428°F to 842°F). This stream is likely to contain organic sulfur compounds.

298-754-0 93821-66-0

Residual oils (petroleum)

A complex combination of hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds and metal-containing
organic compounds obtained as the residue from refinery fractionation cracking
processes. It produces a finished oil with a viscosity above 2cSt. at 100°C.

308-733-0 98219-64-8

Residues, steam cracked, thermally treated

A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained by the treatment and distillation of
raw steam-cracked naphtha. It consists predominantly of unsaturated hydrocarbons
boiling in the range above approximately 180°C (356°F).

309-863-0 101316-57-8

Distillates (petroleum), hydrodesulfurized full-range middle

A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained by treating a petroleum stock with
hydrogen. It consists predominantly of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers
predominantly in the range of C9 through C25 and boiling in the range of
approximately 150°C to 400°C (302°F to 752°F).

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