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TitleIssues in Potable Reuse: The Viability of Augmenting Drinking Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.4 MB
Total Pages279
Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
Dedication
Preface
Contents
Executive Summary
1 Reclaiming Wastewater: An Overview
2 Chemical Contaminants in Reuse Systems
3 Microbial Contaminants in Reuse Systems
4 Methods for Assessing Health Risks of Reclaimed Water
5 Health-Effect Studies of Reuse Systems
6 Reliability and Quality Assurance Issues for Reuse Systems
A Use of Consequence- Frequency Assessment to Evaluate Performance of an Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility
B Biographies of Committee Members and Staff
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1




PREFACEiCommittee to Evaluate the Viability of AugmentingPotable Water Supplies With Reclaimed WaterWater Science and Technology BoardCommission on Geosciences, Environment, and ResourcesNational Research CouncilNATIONAL ACADEMY PRESSWashington, D.C. 1998
The Viability of Augmenting Drinking
Water Supplies With Reclaimed Water
Issues in
Potable Reuse
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Page 2




National Academy Press ¥ 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW ¥ Washington, DC 20418
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing
Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils ofthe National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Instituteof Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for

their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.Support for this project was provided by the American Water Works Association Re-search Foundation, County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, National WaterResearch Institute, Phoenix Water Services Department, San Diego County Water Author-ity, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation under grant nos. 1425-6-FG-81-07010 and 1425-6-FG-30-
00740, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under cooperative agreement no. CX 824340-01-0, and Water Environment Research Foundation.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataIssues in potable reuse : the viability of augmenting drinkingwater supplies with reclaimed water / Committee to Evaluate theViability of Augmenting Potable Water Supplies With ReclaimedWater, Water Science and Technology Board, Commission on
Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council. p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-309-06416-31. Water reuse. 2. Drinking water. I. National Research Council(U.S.). Committee to Evaluate the Viability of Augmenting PotableWater Supplies with Reclaimed Water.TD429 .I84 19998-19686

363.6Õ1Ñddc21Issues in Potable Reuse: The Viability of Augmenting Drinking Water Supplies With Reclaimed
Water is available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Box 285,
Washington, D.C. 20418 (1-800-624-6242; http://www.nap.edu).
Cover art by Y. David Chung. Chung is a graduate of the Corcoran School of Art in
Washington, D.C. He has exhibited his work throughout the country, including at the
Whitney Museum in New York, the Washington Project for the Arts in Washington, D.C.,
and the Williams College Museum of Art in Williamstown, Massachusetts.Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of AmericaCopyright ©2003 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF File provided by the National Academies Press (www.nap.edu) for research
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Page 139




METHODS FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISKS OF RECLAIMED WATER123Microscopy for bacteriaCan be used with specificSample preparation canOnly method readily available forand protozoastains (monoclonal antibodies,
interfere with detectionprotozoaprobes, fluorogenic dyes,Less sensitive thanAssessment of physical removaland viability stains)culture as smallerFor use when stressed bacteria are anRapid, quantitative volumes are examined
issue Can be tedious
Polymerase chainHighly specific, rapidMeasures nonviableExcellent for presence/absencereactionmicroorganisms
assessmentCan be inhibited byOnly method available for key viruses ofsample constituentsconcernNonquantitativeCan be applied with cell cultureLess sensitive due totechniques for rapid and specificlow volumes processedidentificationNOTE: HPC = heterotrophic plate count.Copyright ©2003 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF File provided by the National Academies Press (www.nap.edu) for research
purposes are copyrighted by the National Academy of Sciences. Distribution, posting, or copying is strictly prohibited without
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Page 140




124ISSUES IN POTABLE REUSEwastewater to identify a variety of microorganisms based on their spe-cies-specific nucleic acid sequence.Use of Polymerase Chain Reaction TechniquesPolymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a molecular technique used todetect a variety of microorganisms in environmental samples (Atlas et
al., 1992; Bej et al., 1990; Johnson et al., 1995; Kopecka et al., 1993;
Mahbubani et al., 1991; Tsai and Olson, 1991). PCR can rapidly identify a

specific organism. However, before PCR can be used routinely for envi-

ronmental monitoring, several issues must be addressed, including the
testÕs sensitivity, the viability of detected pathogens, and assay interfer-ence by inhibitors in the spectrum.The sensitivity (or the limit of detection) of PCR is constrained by thetechnology. In most cases, only very small volumes (100
l or less) can beprocessed through the thermal cyclers (machines that control the sample
temperatures during processing) used in PCR assays. Therefore, concen-
tration of samples is necessary. (Alternatively, larger-capacity machines

could be developed in order to increase the sample volume.)Further, because PCR does not distinguish live from dead microor-ganisms, a cell cultivation procedure must be performed before the re-
sults have relevance to health risks. This is especially true for samples

taken from water that has undergone disinfection. PCR may therefore be
most useful in untreated waters (source waters, recreational waters, shell-
fish harvesting waters, ground waters) where viability can be assumed,
or in the evaluation of processes designed to physically remove micro-
biological particles (such as membrane processes).Water quality is also an issue, since physical and chemical constitu-ents in water can mask the target nucleic acid or inhibit the enzyme reac-
tion that the PCR process uses to amplify the target DNA, creating a false
negative result. Recently developed antibody capture procedures appear

to have great promise in addressing the problem of interference for both
protozoa (Johnson et al., 1995) and viruses (Deng et al., 1994).Finally, PCR remains only qualitative in that the results are presented
as positive or negative. The development of quantitative techniques us-

ing PCR would be very useful for assessments of the microbiological
quality of drinking water.Detection of BacteriaSeveral well-established methods for detecting and enumeratingcoliform and fecal coliform bacteria indicators exist and are useful for
evaluating the effectiveness of disinfection in water and wastewater treat-
Copyright ©2003 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF File provided by the National Academies Press (www.nap.edu) for research
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262INDEXToxic Substances Control Act, 140Toxicological evaluation, 3-5. See alsoGenotoxicitycentral role in reclamation projects, 20,140-142, 156-157continuous, 10
information incomplete, 4, 135integrated, 9-10qualitative, 10
recommendations concerning, 201-203reliable method needed, 67-69, 182studies using, 9-11, 165-189
subchronic, 16tiered tests, 16Trace contaminants. See Contaminants;
Organic compoundsTraining operators for water treatmentfacilities, 13, 235-236, 238Transformation probability distributions, 244Treatment. See Water standards; Water
treatmentTreatment trains, 99, 111, 170-172, 211-213conceptual diagram of, 243Trickling filtration process, 21, 53, 91, 104
Trihalomethanes (THMs), removing, 50,53-57Trout, 184Typhoid fever, 76, 214UUltrafiltration, 30Ultraviolet light (UV) processes, 53, 97, 236Unidentified contaminants. SeeContaminants; Microbial
contaminants; Organic compoundsUpper Occoquan Sewage Authority(UOSA) reclamation project, 30-31,
104-107Upstream discharges. See Wastewater
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 26, 164
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, xiU.S. Geological Survey, 62Utility companies. See Water utilities
VVadose zones, 37-38Variability, 219-220securing data about, 6Viability decisions. See Water agencies
Vibrio cholerae O139, 84
Viral pathogens, 6. See also individual virusesculturing, 122, 127detecting, 119, 121, 126-127enteric, diseases from, 82-83
increased danger from, 6list of, 75need for data about, 7
studies of, 100Virginia. See Upper Occoquan Sewage
Authority (UOSA) reclamation
projectWWashington, D.C. See Potomic Estuary
Experimental Wastewater Treatment
PlantWastewater. See also Advanced wastewater
treatment (AWT); Reclaimed water;
Water treatment; Water treatmentfacilitieschemicals found in, 46
compared to natural water, 63-64microbial contaminants in untreated,89-90municipal, reusing, 2quality spectrum of, 19
research needed on, 4, 69upstream discharges of, 2, 15, 217-219Water agencies, 3-4decision-making by, 4, 16, 42-43, 88-89Water conservation, 3Water courses for storage, 2
Water disposal, providing for, 12, 30, 237Water distribution. See Reliability issues;Water utilitiesWater Factory 21, 22, 25, 27-28, 50, 53-54,101-104flow schematic for, 24
transformation probability distributionsfor, 244-245Water hyacinths, in secondary watertreatment, 29, 86Water management, 1. See also Drinking
water; Reclaimed waterof chemical inputs to reuse systems, 50-53of disinfection by-products to reusesystems, 53-58Copyright ©2003 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF File provided by the National Academies Press (www.nap.edu) for research
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Page 279




INDEX263Water quality issues, 12-13, 208-238. Seealso Water standards
Water reclamation projects. See Proposedpotable reuse projects; Watertreatment facilities; and individualreclamation projectschemical contaminants in, 45-71microbial contaminants in, 74-112monitoring, 223-224
role of toxicological testing in, 140-141surveillance programs in, 232-234Water Resource Development Act of 1974,26Water safety. See Health and safety testing
Water samples, preparing, 180flow-proportioned composites, 224Water sources. See Drinking water
Water standards, 18-20. See also Drinking
water; Health and safety testingcurrent, 3, 7, 70developing more appropriate, 7, 9, 16,109-110Water storage, environmental, 1-2, 4, 214-217amount needed, 225protection provided by, 2, 9, 20-21Water suppliesaugmenting, 34-35, 39chemicals naturally present in, 4
degraded, 19discharging wastewater into, 217-219pristine, 74, 76Water testing. See Health and safety testing
Water treatment, 1, 3-4, 4, 21. See alsoAdvanced wastewater treatment
(AWT); Pretreatment programs;Water storage; Water treatmentfacilities; and individual processesadvanced technologies for, 1, 21-29, 101-109chemicals added or generated during, 4conventional, 92effectiveness of various levels of, 8failures of, 208-209
modifying processes, 5processes listed, 22-23secondary or tertiary, 5, 21-22
using chemical with physical processes,6, 109Water treatment facilities. See also Response
measuresmanaging, 2plant-by-plant reviews, 9
reclamation within, 2training and certifying operators for, 13,235-236, 238Water utilities. See also Water agencies
conventional, 2, 6, 17, 92need for greater knowledgeability by,20using water with major wastewatercomponents, 2, 18Waterborne diseases, 74-88, 150designating coordinator for, 233-234dramatic decline in, 6
emerging, 80-83link to infectious agents, 11need for better data on, 7Western Consortium for Public Health, xiWhittier Narrows Water Reclamation Plant(WRP), 27Whole-animal testing. See In vivo testing
Windhoek (South Africa) Direct WaterReclamation System, 25-26, 104-105,164, 168, 190-192YYersinia, 77, 125
Youths. See Sensitive populations
Copyright ©2003 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF File provided by the National Academies Press (www.nap.edu) for research
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