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TitleLessons from a lean consultant avoiding lean implementation failures on the shop floor.pdf
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Table of Contents
                            Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Author
Introduction
	Gung Ho!
	Lean Training
	The First Kaizen Event
	Struggling with Change
	Raising the Bar: 5S Implementation
	Improving Work Instructions
	Lack of Accountability
	The Second Kaizen Event
	Giving Up on Lean
	End of the Journey
	The Three Main Drivers of Product Success
		Cost
		Quality
		Delivery
	The Big Picture
		Owners
		Employees
		Suppliers
	The Strategic Purpose
		Productivity
		Quality
		Inventory and WIP
		Floor Space Use
		Throughput Time
	Creating Your Strategic Purpose
		Estimated Annual Improvement to the Metrics
			Productivity
			Quality
			Inventory and Work in Process
			Floor Space
			Throughput Time
		Departmental Responsibilities
			Purchasing
			Engineering
			Sales and Marketing
			Production Control
			Maintenance
	Chapter Wrap-Up
	Creating the Company Kaizen Program
	Kaizen Champion
	Kaizen Events
		Kaizen Event Selection
		Kaizen Team Selection
			Manufacturing or Industrial Engineer
			Quality Engineer
			Facilities and Maintenance Personnel
			Materials Operator
			Line Operators
			Management
		Kaizen Team Leader Selection
		Kaizen Event Date and Length
		Kaizen Team Goals and Expected Results
		Kaizen Event Planning
		Kaizen Event Budgeting
	Kaizen Steering Committee
		Kaizen Champion
		General or Plant Manager
		Engineering Manager
		Manufacturing Manager
		Human Resource Manager
		Purchasing or Materials Manager
		Maintenance or Facilities Manager
	Kaizen Event Tracking and Scheduling
		Tracking
			Pre-event Items
			Post-event Items
		Scheduling
	Kaizen Event Communication
		Kaizen Event Tracking Sheet
		Kaizen Newsletter
		Communication Boards
		Employee Suggestion Box
	Monthly Kaizen Meeting
		Open Action Items
		Past Kaizen Event Results and Lessons Learned
		Upcoming Kaizen Events
	Getting Started
		Schedule a Meeting with Upper and Middle Management
		Schedule and Conduct the First Kaizen Meeting
		Create the Kaizen Event Tracking Sheet
	Your First Kaizen Event
		Planning
			Selecting the Area
			Selecting the Team Leader
			Selecting Team Members
		Week of the Kaizen Event
			Day 1
			Days 2 and 3
			Last Day
	Chapter Wrap-Up
	5S and the Visual Workplace
		Mistakes in Straightening
		Mistakes in Sustaining
			5S Audits
			5S Tracking Sheet
	Time and Motion Studies
		Use a Stopwatch
		Document the Work from Start to Finish
		Collect the Work Content First
	Waste Removal
		High-Priority Waste
		Medium-Priority Waste
		Low-Priority Waste
	Quality at the Source
	Workstation Design
		Lines versus Work Cells
		Physical Flow
			Conveyor Belts
			Conveyor Rollers
			Lift Tables
			Workbenches
			Mobile Lines
		Material Presentation
		Tool Presentation
		Operator Fatigue and Safety
		Painting and Lighting
		Documentation
	Chapter Wrap-Up
	Standard Work
		Following the Work Content
		Using Single Piece Flow and Controlled Batches
		Staying in the Workstation
		Maintaining Communication
		Working within Effective Hours
	How to Get Them Involved
		Using the Kaizen Suggestion Box
		Kaizen Steering Committee Floor Representatives
		Involving Operators in Data Collection
	Lean Manufacturing Training
	Chapter Wrap-Up
	Training Programs for New Employees
		Level 1: Company Product Overview
		Level 2: Quality Overview
		Level 3: Introduction to Lean Manufacturing
			The Seven Deadly Wastes
			5S and the Visual Workplace
			Standard Work
			Effective Hours
			Kaizen
		Level 4: Mock Line Training
	Cross-Training Program
		Levels of Progression
			Novice
			Certified
			Trainer
		Progression of Temporary Workers
		Cross-Training Matrix
	Training Managers and Engineers
		Managers
		Engineers
	Chapter Wrap-Up
	Lean Goals
	Pay-for-Skill Program
		Number of Certifications
		Years of Experience
		Attendance
		Kaizen and Kaizen Event Participation
		Quality Errors
	Providing Incentives for Good Ideas
	Chapter Wrap-Up
	Poor Leadership Traits
		The Master Delegator
		The Yes/No Manager
		The Crisis Junkie
		The Poor Decision Maker
		The Personal Boss
	A More Congenial Leadership
		Acknowledge and Involve Your Staff
		Provide an Environment in Which People Can Be Successful
		Do Not Humiliate Anyone Who Works for You
		Create an Environment Where Mistakes Are OK
		Remember Personal Details
		Don't Hide behind Your Position
		Be Approachable
		Admit Your Mistakes
		Listen in a Way That Encourages Employees to Talk to You
		Be Clear in Your Requests
		Stand behind Your People
		Be a Good Communicator
	Effective Lean Leadership
		Ten Signs of Incompetent Lean Leaders
		Five Lean Leadership Rules for Success
	Chapter Wrap-Up
	The Seven Deadly Wastes
	Key Elements of a Company Kaizen Program
	5S Audit Form
	5S Tracking Sheet
	Time Study Sheet
1 Case Study: How Lean Failed
2 The Change Commitment
3 The Lean Infrastructure: Kaizen
4 Early Stumbling Blocks
5 Operator and Supervisor Involvement
6 Lean Training Programs
7 Lean Manufacturing as a Growth Creator
8 Lean Leadership Made Simple
Appendix A Quick Reference
Appendix B Supplemental Material
	Glossary
	Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 75

The 5S audit form is used to monitor conformance to the company's 5S program. The form is based on
the five S's (sort, straighten, scrub, standardize, and sustain). You need to establish and then monitor
the various criteria. There is no maximum number of criteria; you can list as many as you'd like.
The 5S form can be short or lengthy. I have seen forms that were four pages long. The scoring portion
of the audit can be established in two ways: a yes or no approach, or scoring based on a scale. The
form in Figure 4.4 uses yes or no answers to indicate conformance.
Alternatively, you might want to use a scale of 1 to 5 (5 = complete conformance, 3 = minimal
conformance, and 1 = nonconformance).
The 5S audit form should be developed for every process and department in the factory and should be
process-specific. As mentioned, the form for assembly lines should be different from the forms for
receiving, maintenance, and shipping. These areas operate within different process parameters, and
therefore the 5S audit must be tailored to the needs in each area.
For consistency, each 5S audit form should contain the same number of questions. Although each team
has different work processes, it would not be fair to audit the maintenance department with 8
questions and then audit the manufacturing lines with 25 questions. It is typically best practice to form
different 5S teams for the different areas, because workers from each area know it best and can help
establish the criteria and perform the audits. Make sure that the 5S audit forms are developed based
on what is considered critical to organization and what is considered the standard for cleanliness in
each respective area.
Many companies struggle with developing their approach to 5S and specifying how it should be
implemented in each area. It is wise to begin by developing the 5S audit form for the area. When that
is completed, each kaizen team will know the specific criteria to use for the implementation, and that
almost guarantees that the area will be 5S compliant. Remember, 5S compliance is defined differently
for each organization. Develop the criteria, implement 5S, and sustain it.
To maintain consistency, 5S audits should be conducted once a week. It is a good idea to post the
audit criteria in the target area so that operators and floor supervisors are visually aware of the
standard. After the audit, the data from the audit form is added together, and the completed audit is

Page 76

based on a percentage, as shown at the bottom of Figure 4.4.
There are no secrets here; you want the floor personnel to know what they will be audited on. The
company should want the areas to score well on a consistent basis.


5S Tracking Sheet

Four audits should be performed every month (one per week), and the results posted on a tracking
sheet. This 5S tracking sheet needs to be visible to the whole organization, because office 5S audits
will eventually become part of the 5S process. Each department, line, work area, or function will be
aware of the monthly progress. This is not a finger-pointing game but rather a visual indicator of
trends, something that helps management pinpoint areas in need of improvement.
Each month, the department or area with the highest 5S score is awarded a prize. This process creates
healthy and fun competition for everyone, and it encourages everyone to strive for the highest score.
The 5S tracking sheet should be updated only once a month, and then again at year end to determine
the overall winner for the year. However, before you can begin tracking 5S scores, 5S must be
implemented plantwide based on the criteria established in the audit form.


Time and Motion Studies

All lean decisions are based on data, and good reliable data will never fail you. It takes time to
collect good data, and I am not an advocate of rushing the process. For your lean efforts to positively
affect key shop floor metrics—and ultimately to improve cost, quality, and delivery—you must obtain
an accurate assessment of the current state of the target process. This data, once collected, is then
used to determine accurate staffing and station requirements, equipment needs, number of assembly
lines, parts requirements, line length, and workstation design.
The most fundamental aspect of data collection is conducting time and motion studies for the target
process: evaluating the work content, work steps, and movement of line workers for the purpose of
identifying value-added and non-value-added work. Collecting this information takes time. Here are
some suggestions that will reduce the possibility of errors during collection:

Use a stopwatch.
Document the work from start to finish.
Collect the work content first.



Use a Stopwatch

Historically, time and motion studies have been performed in a variety of ways or not at all.
Unfortunately, either many manufacturers do not have this information in their possession, or the data
they possess is inaccurate or outdated. Some manufacturers have performed the studies and have
accurate data but have never used it. In any case, the data is important and I highly recommend that it

Page 149

U

Unnecessary items, identifying
Up-front planning, failure case study


V

Value stream
Value stream mapping, failure case study
Video cameras, time and motion studies
Visual guide to workstations
Visual management, failure case study
Visual workplace, training new employees


W

Waiting, deadly waste
Waste removal. See also Seven deadly wastes.

common mistakes
high-priority
low-priority
medium-priority
overview

WIP (work in process) buildup
Work cells versus lines, workstation design
Work day, length. See also EH (effective hours).
Work instructions. See Documentation.
Work processes, best practices. See Standard work.
Workbenches, workstation design
Workers. See Employees; Operators.
Workstation design. See also Production floor.

common mistakes

versus

versus

green lights
red lights

Page 150

tower lights
yellow lights



X

X-Corp, lean failure
5S implementation

accountability, lack of
change resistance

consultants

kaizen events

launching the program
management denial
point-of-use work instructions
single piece flow
summary
supervisor failures
takt
training

up-front planning
WIP (work in process) buildup
work instructions improvement



Y

Yellow lights
Yes/no manager

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