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TitleMedicinal Plants. Chemistry and Properties (M. Daniel)
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Table of Contents
                            Preface
Contents
1. Introduction
PART A: SECONDARY METABOLITES
	2. Alkaloids
		2.1 Alkaloidal amines
			Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ephedraceae)
			Alhagi pseudalhagi Desv. (Fabaceae)
			Catha edulis Forsk (Celastraceae)
			Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)
			Urtica dioica Linn. (Urticaceae)
		2.2 Diterpenoid Alkaloids
			Aconitum napellus Linn. (Ranunculaceae)
			Aconitum ferox Wall
			Aconitum heterophyllum Wall
			Aconitum chasmantham Stapf.
		2.3 Imidazole Alkaloids
			Pilocarpus spp. (Rutaceae)
		2.4 Indole Alkaloids
			Catharanthus roseus G. Don (Apocynaceae)
			Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. (Loganiaceae)
			Physostigma venenosum Bal. (Fabaceae)
			Mucuna pruriens DC. ( Fabaceae)
			Claviceps purpurea Tul. (Clavicipitaceae)
			Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois. (Convolvulaceae)
			Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae)
			Ipomoea nil Roth. (Convolvulaceae)
			Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae)
			Ipomoea marginata Verdc. (Convolvulaceae)
			Erythrina variegata Linn. (Fabaceae)
			Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. (Apocynaceae)
			Passiflora incarnata Linn. (Passifloraceae)
			Alstonia scholaris R. Br. (Apocynaceae)
			Peganum harmala Linn. (Zygophyllaceae)
			Desmodium gangeticum DC. (Fabaceae)
			Murraya exotica Blance (Rutaceae)
			Gelsemium sempervirens Ait. (Loganiaceae)
			Tabernaemontana divaricata Roem. &Schult. (Apocynaceae)
		2.5 Isoquinoline Alkaloids
			1. Simple Isoquinolines
			2. Benzyl Isoquinolines
			3. bis-Benzyl Isoquinolines
			4. Aporphines
			5. Cularines
			6. Morphines
			7. Protoberberines
			8. Protopine Group
			9. Phthalide Isoquinolines
			10. Emetine Group
			11. alpha Naphthaphenanthridines
			12. Miscellaneous
			Cephaelis ipecacuanha A. Rich. (Rubiaceae)
			Berberis aristata DC (Berberidaceae)
			Alangium salvifolium Wang (Alangiaceae)
			Hydrastis canadensis Linn. (Ranunculaceae)
			Mahonia aquifolium Nuttal (Berberidaceae)
			Argemone mexicana Linn. (Papaveraceae)
			Sanguinaria canadensis Linn. (Papaveraceae)
			Curare
			Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Menispermaceae)
			Cissampelos pareira Linn. (Menispermaceae)
			Stephania glabra Miers. (Menispermaceae)
			Jateorhiza palmata Linn. (Menispermaceae)
			Tiliacora racemosa Cole. (Menispermaceae)
			Papaver somniferum Linn. (Papaveraceae)
			Aristolochia indica Linn. (Aristolochiaceae)
			Hedera nepalensis Koch. (Araliaceae)
			Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae)
		2.6 Monoterpenoid Alkaloids
			Valeriana officinalis Linn. (Valerianaceae)
			Enicostemma hyssopifolium Verdoon (Gentianaceae)
		2.7 Phenanthro-indolizidine Alkaloids
			Tylophora indica Merrill. (Asclepiadaceae)
		2.8 Pyridine-piperidine Alkaloids
			Areca catechu Linn. (Arecaceae)
			Piper nigrum Linn. (Piperaceae)
			Piper longum Linn
			Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae)
			Conium maculatum Linn. (Apiaceae)
			Lobelia inflata Linn. (Lobeliaceae)
		2.9 Quinazoline Alkaloids
			Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. (Acanthaceae)
		2.10 Quinoline Alkaloids
			Cinchona spp. (Rubiaceae)
			Toddalia asiatica Lam (Rutaceae)
			Glycosmis pentaphylla DC (Rutaceae)
		2.11 Quinolizidines/Lupinane Alkaloids
			Cytisus scoparius Link. (Fabaceae)
			Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (Nyctaginaceae)
		2.12 Sesquiterpene Alkaloids
			Celastrus paniculatus Willd (Celastraceae)
		2.13 Steroidal Alkaloids
			Veratrum viride Aiton (Liliaceae)
			Holarrhena pubescens Wall. (Apocynaceae)
			Solanum americanum Linn. (Solanaceae)
			Solanum surattense Burm. f. (Euphorbiaceae)
			Wrightia arborea Mabb. (Apocynaceae)
		2.14 Tropane Alkaloids
			Atropa belladonna Linn. (Solanaceae)
			Hyoscyamus niger Linn. (Solanaceae)
			Datura stamonium Linn. (Solanaceae)
			Datura metel Linn.
			Duboisia myoporoides R. Br. & D. leichhardtii F. Muell.(Solanaceae)
			Scopolia carniolica Jacq. (Solanaceae)
			Mandragora officinarum Linn. (Solanaceae)
			Erythroxylum coca Lam. (Erythroxylaceae)
			Convolvulus arvensis Linn (Convolvulaceae)
		2.15 Tropolone Alkaloids
			Colchicum autumnale Linn. (Liliaceae)
			Gloriosa superba Linn. (Liliaceae)
			Premna corymbosa Rottl. (Verbenaceae)
			Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham (Capparaceae)
	3. Terpenoids
		3.1 Monoterpenes
			Normal Monoterpenes
				(i) Acyclic Normal Monoterpenes
				(ii) Monocyclic Normal Monoterpenes
				(iii) Bicyclic Normal Terpenoids
			Iridoids (Cyclopentanoid monoterpenes)
			Tropolones
		3.2 Sesquiterpenes
		3.3 Volatile Oils
		3.4 Aromatherapy
			Angelica sinensis Diels (Apiaceae)
			Melissa officinalis Linn. (Lamiaceae)
			Hyssopus officinalis Linn. (Lamiaceae)
			Tanacetum vulgare Linn. (Asteraceae)
			Acorus calamus Linn. (Araceae)
			Alpinia galanga Willd (Zingiberaceae)
			Alpinia officinarum Hance
			Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Zingiberaceae)
			Anethum graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae)
			Anethum sowa Roxb.
			Angelica archangelica Linn. (Apiaceae)
			Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae)
			Calendula officinalis Linn. (Asteraceae)
			Syzygium aromaticum Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae)
			Marrubium vulgare Linn. (Lamiaceae)
			Lavandula officinalis Choix (Lamiaceae)
			Rosemarinus officinalis Linn. (Lamiaceae)
			Mentha piperita Linn. (Lamiaceae)
			Mentha spicata Linn. (Lamiaceae)
			Thymus vulgaris Linn. (Lamiaceae)
			Gaultheria procumbens Linn. (Ericaceae)
			Caesulia axillaris Roxb. (Asteraceae)
			Carum carvi Linn. (Apiaceae)
			Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae)
			Chenopodium anthelminticum Linn.
			Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees. (Lauraceae)
			Cinnamomum camphora Presl.
			Cinnamomum tamala Nees. & Eberm.
			Coleus ambonicus Lour. (Lamiaceae)
			Coriandrum sativum Linn. (Apiaceae)
			Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (Poaceae)
			Cymbopogon martinii Wats.
			Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae)
			Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae)
			Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae)
			Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. (Lamiaceae)
			Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe. (Zingiberaceae)
			Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae)
			Ruta graveolens Linn. (Rutaceae)
			Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae)
			Iridoids
				Barleria prionitis Linn. (Acanthaceae)
				Barleria cristata Linn.
				Barleria strigosa Willd.
				Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae)
				Picrorhiza kurroa Linn. (Scrophulariaceae)
				Gentiana lutea Linn. (Gentianaceae)
			Sesquiterpenes
				Chrysanthemum parthenium Pers. (Asteraceae)
				Chrysanthemum parthenium Pers. (Asteraceae)
				Nardostachys jatamansi DC. (Valerianaceae)
				Anthemis nobilis Linn. (Asteraceae)
				Ageratum conyzoides Linn. (Asteraceae)
				Artemisia cina Berg. (Asteraceae)
				Artemisia absinthium Linn.
				Artemisia maritima Linn.
				Achillea millefolium Linn. (Asteraceae)
				Santalum album Linn. (Santalaceae)
				Artemisia maritima Linn.
				Achillea millefolium Linn. (Asteraceae)
				Santalum album Linn. (Santalaceae)
				Cichorium intybus Linn. (Asteraceae)
				Pogostemon cablin Benth. (Lamiaceae)
				Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke (Asteraceae)
				Anamirta cocculus W. & A. (Menispermaceae)
				Elephantopus scaber Linn. (Asteraceae)
				Inula racemosa Hook.f. (Asteraceae)
				Inula helenium Linn.
				Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Cyperaceae)
			Glucosinolates and Sulphides
				Lepidium sativum Linn. (Brassicaceae)
				Tropaeolum majus Linn. (Tropaeolaceae)
				Armoracia rusticana Gaertn. (Brassicaceae)
				Capsella bursa - pastoris Medic. (Brassicaceae)
				Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)
				Allium sativum Linn. (Liliaceae)
				Allium cepa Linn.
				Allium porrum Linn.
				Allium schoenoprasum Linn.
				Ferula asafoetida Bios (Apiaceae)
		3.5 Diterpenes
			Ginkgo biloba Linn. (Ginkgoaceae)
			Taxus brevifolia Nutt. (Taxaceae)
			Swertia chirata Buch. -Ham. (Gentianaceae)
			Andrographis paniculata Wall. (Acanthaceae)
			Aleurites fordii Hemsl. (Euphorbiaceae)
			Baliospermum solanifolium Suresh (Euphorbiaceae)
			Jatropha gossypifolia Linn. (Euphorbiaceae)
			Jatropha glandulifera Roxb.
			Boswellia serrata Roxb. (Burseraceae)
			Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb. (Caesalpiniaceae)
			Caesalpinia crista Linn.
			Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. (Clusiaceae)
		3.6 Triterpenoids
			Steroids
			Sterolins and Saponins
			3.6a Triterpenes and Steroids
				Allamanda cathartica Linn. (Apocynaceae)
				Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae)
				Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Aizoaceae)
				Vernonia cinerea Less. (Asteraceae)
				Gossypium arboreum Linn. (Malvaceae)
				Gossypium herbaceum Linn.
				Helicteres isora Linn. (Sterculiaceae)
				Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae)
				Ichnocarpus frutescens R.Br. (Apocynaceae)
				Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae)
				Holoptelia integrifolia Planch (Ulmaceae)
				Commiphora spp. (Burseraceae)
				Commiphora wightii Arnott — (Burseraceae)
				Aerva lanata Juss. (Amaranthaceae)
				Drypetes roxburghii Hurus. (Euphorbiaceae)
				Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Euphorbiaceae)
				Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.
				Euphorbia nivulia Buch. - Ham. (Euphorbiaceae)
				Clerodendrum indicum Kuntze (Verbenaceae)
				Ficus benghalensis Linn. (Moraceae)
				Ficus carica Linn.
				Ficus racemosa Linn.
				Ficus religiosa Linn.
				Cissus quadrangula Linn. (Vitaceae)
				Withania somnifera Dunal (Solanaceae)
				Citrullus colocynthis Schard. (Cucurbitaceae)
			3.6b Limonoids and Quassinoids
				Picrasma excelsa Planch. (Simaroubaceae)
				Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae)
				Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae)
				Brucea javanica Merril (Simaroubaceae)
			3.6c Saponins
				Polygala senega Linn. (Polygalaceae)
				Smilax spp. (Liliaceae)
				Panax spp. (Araliaceae)
				Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. (Araliaceae)
				Bupleurum falcatum Linn. (Apiaceae)
				Platycodon grandiflorum DC. (Campanulaceae)
				Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (Polygalaceae)
				Akebia quinata DC (Lardizabalaceae)
				Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa Hu. (Rhamnaceae)
				Abrus precatorius Linn. (Fabaceae)
				Agave americana Linn. (Agavaceae)
				Asparagus racemosus Willd (Liliaceae)
				Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. & Fernandes (Liliaceae)
				Fagonia cretica Linn. (Zygophyllaceae)
				Aesculus hippocastanum Linn. (Hippocastanaceae)
				Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. (Fabaceae)
				Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (Fabaceae)
				Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Simaroubaceae)
				Bacopa monnieri Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae)
				Serenoa repens Small (Arecaceae)
				Taraxacum officinale Weber (Asteraceae)
				Guaiacum officinale Linn. (Zygophyllaceae)
				Catunaregam spinosa Tirveng. (Rubiaceae)
				Centella asiatica Urban. (Apiaceae)
				Costus speciosus Smith. (Zingiberaceae)
				Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (Amaryllidaceae)
				Tribulus terrestris Linn. (Zygophyllaceae)
				Actaea racemosa Linn. (Ranunculaceae)
			3.6d Cardiac Glycosides
				Digitalis purpurea Linn. (Scrophulariaceae)
				Convallaria majalis Linn. (Liliaceae)
				Strophanthus kombe Oliv., S. hispidus DC. (Apocynaceae)
				Asclepias curassavica Linn. (Asclepiadaceae)
				Carissa carandas Linn. (Apocynaceae)
				Cerbera manghas Linn. (Apocynaceae)
				Calotropis gigantea Ait.f. (Asclepiadaceae)
				Calotropis procera Ait.f.
				Corchorus olitorius Linn. (Tiliaceae)
				Pergularia daemia Choiv. (Asclepiadaceae)
				Nerium oleander Linn. (Apocynaceae)
				Leptadenia reticulata W & A. (Asclepiadaceae)
				Thevetia peruviana Merril (Apocynaceae)
				Helleborus niger Linn. (Ranunculaceae)
				Drimia indica Jessop (Liliaceae)
		3.7 Carotenoids
			Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (Solanaceae)
			Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae)
			Crocus sativus Linn. (Iridaceae)
			Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. (Oleaceae)
			Bixa orellana Linn. (Bixaceae)
	4. Phenolics
		4.1 Simple Phenols
		4.2 Phenolic Acids
		4.3 Acetophenones
		4.4 Phenyl Propanes
		4.5 Benzophenones
			Dryopteris filix-mas Schott (Polypodiaceae)
			Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Anacardiaceae)
			Humulus lupulus Linn. (Cannabinaceae)
			Capsicum annum Linn. (Solanaceae)
			Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae)
			Piper methysticum Forst. (Piperaceae)
			Styrax spp. (Styraceae)
		4.6 Xanthones
		4.7 Coumarins
			Aegle marmalos Correa (Rutaceae)
			Feronia limonia Swingle (Rutaceae)
			Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae)
			Eclipta alba Hassk. (Asteraceae)
		4.8 Chromones
			Bergenia ciliata Sternb. (Saxifragaceae)
			Ammi visnaga Lam. (Apiaceae)
		4.9 Stilbenes
		4.10 Lignans
			Podophyllum peltatum Linn. (Berberidaceae)
			Podophyllum emodi Wall.
			Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. (Euphorbiaceae)
			Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae)
			Piper cubeba Linn. (Piperaceae)
			Sesamum indicum Linn. (Pedaliaceae)
			Linum usitatissimum Linn. (Linaceae)
			Schisandra chinensis Linn. (Schisandraceae)
			Aleurites moluccana Willd (Euphorbiaceae)
		4.11 Flavonoids
			4.11a Anthocyanins
			4.11b Aurones
			4.11c Biflavonyls
			4.11d Catechins, Flavan-3, 4-diols and Proanthocyanidins
			4.11e Chalcones
			4.11f Flavones and Flavonols
			4.11g Flavonones and Flavononols (Dihydroflavones andDihydro Flavonols)
			4.11h Isoflavones, Isoflavonones and Homoisoflavones
			4.11i Neoflavanoids
				Vaccinium myrtillus Linn. (Vacciniaceae/Ericaceae)
				Crataegus laevigata DC & C. monogyna Linn. (Rosaceae)
				Sambucus nigra Linn. (Caprifoliaceae)
				Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. (Malvaceae)
				Ixora coccinea Linn.(Rubiaceae)
				Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. (Polygonaceae)
				Camellia sinensis Kuntze (Theaceae)
				Oroxylum indicum Vent. (Bignoniaceae)
				Biophytum sensitivum DC. (Oxalidaceae)
				Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. (Lythraceae)
				Gardenia gummifera Linn. f. (Rubiaceae)
				Gardenia resinifera Roth.
				Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)
				Bauhinia racemosa Lam.
				Bauhinia tomentosa Linn.
				Bauhinia variegata Linn.
				Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae)
				Canscora decussata Roem. & Schult. (Gentianaceae)
				Glycine max Merril (Fabaceae)
				Iris germanica Linn. (Iridaceae)
				Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Fabaceae)
				Tephrosia purpurea Pers. (Fabaceae)
				Derris indica Bennet (Fabaceae)
				Mallotus philippensis Don. (Euphorbiaceae)
				Silybium marianum Gaertn. (Asteraceae)
		4.12 Quinones
			4.12a Benzoquinones
			4.12b Naphthaquinones
			4.12c Anthraquinones
				Embelia ribes Burm.f. (Myrsinaceae)
				Arnebia nobilis Rachinger (Boraginaceae)
				Stereospermum suaveolens DC. (Bignoniaceae)
				Plumbago indica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae)
				Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Liliaceae)
				Cassia Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)
				Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)
				Cassia tora Linn.
				Cassia senna Linn.
				Cassia fistula Linn.
				Cassia angustifolia Vahl (Caesalpiniaceae)
				Rheum palmatum Linn. (Polygonaceae)
				Rhamnus purshiana DC. (Rhamnaceae)
				Rhamnus alnus Mill (Rhamnaceae)
				Andira araroba Aguiar (Fabaceae)
				Rubia cordifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae)
				Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. (Fabaceae)
				Hypericum perforatum Linn. (Hypericaceae)
		4.13. Tannins
			Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae)
			Hamamelis virginiana Linn. (Hamamelidaceae)
			Syzygium cumini Skeels (Myrtaceae)
			Saraca asoca De Willde (Caesalpiniaceae)
			Thespesia populnea Sol. (Malvaceae)
			Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae)
			Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Combretaceae)
			Terminalia arjuna W.& A.
			Symplocos cochinchinensis Moore (Symplocaceae)
			Adenanthera pavonina Linn. (Mimosaceae)
			Acacia catechu Willd. (Mimosaceae)
			Acacia nilotica subsp. indica Brenan (Mimosaseae)
			Albizzia lebbeck Willd. (Mimosaceae)
			Albizzia procera Benth.
			Albizzia odoratissima Benth.
			Butea monsperma Taub. (Fabaceae)
		4.14 Antioxidant Therapy
	5. Gums and Mucilages
		Echinacea angustifolia DC. (Asteraceae)
		Plantago ovata Forsk. (Plantaginaceae)
		Hygrophila auriculata Heine (Acanthaceae)
		Sterculia spp. – (Sterculiaceae)
		Anogeissus latifolia Wall. (Combretaceae)
		Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. (Malvaceae)
		Abutilon indicum Sweet. (Malvaceae)
		Abutilon hirtum Sweet.
		Acacia senegal Willd. (Mimosaceae)
		Ulmus rubra Muhl. (Ulmaceae)
		Alcea rosea Linn. (Malvaceae)
		Althea officinalis Linn. (Malvaceae)
		Bambusa arundinacea Roxb. (Poaceae)
		Tabashir
			Basella alba Linn. (Basellaceae)
			Benincasa hispida Cogn. (Cucurbitaceae)
			Amorphophallus campanulatus Blue. (Araceae)
			Ceratonia siliqua Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)
			Macrocystis spp. (Laminariaceae)
			Gelidium cartilagineum Gaillon (Rhodophyceae)
			Chondrus spp. and Gigartina spp. (Rhodophyceae)
PART B PRIMARY METABOLITES
	6. The Primary Metabolics
		6.1 Carbohydrates
		6.2 Aminoacids and Proteins
			Citrus spp. (Rutaceae)
			Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae)
			Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Portulacaceae)
			Tamarindus indica Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)
			Oxalis corniculata Linn. (Oxalidaceae)
			Garcinia indica Choiss. (Clusiaceae)
			Garcinia mangostana Linn.
			Garcinia combogia Desv.
			Garcinia morella Desv.
		6.3 Fatty Acids, Triacylglycerols and Glycolipids
			Oenothera biennis Linn. (Onagraceae)
			Hydnocarpus wightiana Bl. (Flacourtiaceae)
			Ricinus communis Linn. (Euphorbiaceae)
			Exogonium purga Benth. (Convolvulaceae)
			Ipomoea orizabensis Led. (Convolvulaceae)
			Operculina turpethum Silva Manso (Convolvulaceae)
General References
References
Appendix
	1. General Tonics
	2. Arthritis/Rheumatism
	3. Diabetes
	4. High Blood Pressure
	5. Hypertension/Insomnia/Anxiety Neurosis or for Increasing Memory Power
	6. Female Urinogenital Problems
	7. Skin Care, Pimples, Ageing and Cosmetics
	8. Hair Care
	9. Obesity
	10. Cough, Bronchitis
	11. Fever, Cold
	12. Aphrodisiacs
	13. Diuretic, Urinary, Kidney Stones
	14. Liver Problems
	15. Galactogogues
	16. Herbs to Avoid During Pregnancy
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 135

118 MEDICINAL PLANTS: CHEMISTRY AND PROPERTIES

lant. The saponins isolated are akeboside St-e, St-b, St-c, St-d, St-f, St-h, St-j
and St-k based on hederagenin and oleanolic acid sapogenins. The seeds of
this plant also yield saponins based on hederagenin.

Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa Hu. (Rhamnaceae)

Ziziphus

This native of S. Europe and S. E. Asia is a glabrous spiny tree having
fascicled branchlets, simple oblong leaves with stipular spines, small yellow
flowers in short axillary cymes and a fleshy sub-globose drupe.

The seeds, which form the drug, contains two saponins jujubosides A &
B. Both these saponins, on hydrolysis, yield ebelin lactone (Kawai et al.
1974).

In Chinese medicine, the seeds of Ziziphus are recommended for
strengthening the nervous system and for insomnia.

Abrus precatorius Linn. (Fabaceae)

Gunja, Crab’s eye, Indian Liquorice

A. precatorius is a greenish twiner with imparipinnate leaves having 16-40
oblong leaflets, pale purple flowers in axillary inflorescences, rectangular
bulky pods containing ovoid glossy scarlet seeds with a black spot (or black
with white spot or uniformly black/white). This plant is a native of India
and Malaya.

The leaves, which are sweet in taste, contain up to 10% glycyrrhizin,
triterpene glycosides, pinitol and alkaloids such as abrine, hypaphorine,
choline and precatorine. The triterpene glycosides are abusosides A, B, and
C (which are highly sweet) and three glycosides based on cycloartane-type
aglycone, abrutogenin. Other compounds of leaves are triterpenes abrusgenic
acid, abruslactone A and methyl abrusgenate and flavonoids vitexin,
liquirtigenin-7-mono– and diglycosides and taxifolin-3-glucoside. The roots
also contain glycyrrhizin and alkaloids like abrasine and precasine besides
abrine and related bases. The seeds yield alkaloids, a fixed oil, steroids,
lectins, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The alkaloids of the seeds are the
same as those reported from leaves. The oil content of seed is only 2.5%,
which is rich in oleic and linoleic acids. b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 5b-cholanic
acid, abricin, abridin and cholesterol are the steroids present. The colour of
the seeds is due to glycosides of abranin, pelargonidin, cyanidin and
delphinidin. A sapogenol, abrisapogenol J, sophoradiol, its 22-O-acetate,
hederagenin methyl ether, kaikasaponin III methyl ester, abrusin (8-C-
glucosyl scutellarein 6,7-dimethyl ether), its 2’’-O-apioside, flavones such as
abrectorin and aknone (Markham et al. 1989; Choi et al. 1989) are the other
constituents of seeds. Lectins are the chief constituents of seeds, the princi-
pal ones being abrins (unto 0.15% of seed). Lectins are both toxic (abrin) and

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TERPENOIDS 119

non-toxic (Abrus agglutinin). Abrins are denoted by abrin a, b, c & d and
consists of one large b-polypeptide chain (MW. 35,000) and a short
a-polypeptide chain (MW. 32,000) joined by a disulphide bond. Agglutinin
consists of 4 polypeptide chains; the chains are similar to those of abrins.

The roots, leaves and seeds of this plant are used medicinally. The roots
and leaves are used as a substitute of liquorice in coughs and catarrhal
affections. The roots possess diuretic, tonic and emetic properties and are
also used in gonorrhoea, jaundice and other infections. The plant extract is
one of the constituents of oral contraceptives. The seed extract is used exter-
nally in the treatment of ulcers and skin affections. Administered internally,
the seeds are useful in affections of the nervous system, diarrhoea and
dysentery. Abrin is extensivelly studied for its antitumour activity, where it
was found to suppress tumour growth in rats and mice. Abrin is found to
inhibit protein synthesis by inactivating ribosome dependant GTPase and
exhibit no bone marrow suppressing affects as other cytostatic agents.

Agave americana Linn. (Agavaceae)

Kantala, American Aloe

A. americana is a short-stemmed plant bearing a rosette of long, erect, pointed,
fleshy leaves with marginal spines and longitudinal white yellow streaks or
bands. The plant flowers only once during its life and the flowering stem
arises from the centre of the plant as a thick pole. The flowers are funnel
shaped and capsules oblong clavate and beaked. A native of America, it
was introduced in India for its leaf fibre.

The leaves yield saponins such as agavasaponins A-I (10 in number)
based on hecogenin (aglycone), and chlorogenin, rockegenin, tigogenin,
dehydrohecogenin and piscidic acid. The flowers contain chlorogenin and
kaempferol and the seeds neotigogenin, hecogenin and kammagenin.

The leaves are used as laxatives and emmenagogue and in scurvy. Leaf
juice is used for warts, cancerous ulcers and tumours. Roots are diuretic,
diaphoretic and antisyphilitic. Hecogenin extracted from Agaves are used
in the manufacture of corticosteroids b-methasone and dexamethasone.

Asparagus racemosus Willd (Liliaceae)

Shataveri, Asparagus

A. racemosus is a scandant much-branched spiny undershrub with tuberous
short rootstock bearing a number of tuberous roots, stems armed with nu-
merous recurved spines, sickle-shaped cladodes, leaves reduced to scale
leaves, small white flowers in racemes and globose berries. Asparagus oc-
curs wild and is cultivated throughout India.

The tubers contain saponins, named shatavarins 1,11,111,IV, glycoside
AR-4 (C45H74O16), tridecaacetyl shatavarin-I (C77H112O36) and tetradeca-O-

Page 269

252 MEDICINAL PLANTS CHEMISTRY AND PROPERTIES

turpethin 214
Tylophora 37
Tylophora indica Merrill. 38
Tylophora indica—Tylophora 227
tyrosine 10

U. tomentosa 18
Udumber 110
Ulmus rubra Muhl. 196
umbelliferone 64
Uncaria guianensis 18
Uncarine 18
Upodika 198
Urena 224
Urena lobata 13
Urginea indica Kunth. 136
Ursina-Gurgi 211
Ursinia 58
Ursiniolide 58
Urtica dioica 13

Vaccinium myrtillus 225
Vaccinium myrtillus Linn 159
Vacha 62
Valerian 37
Valeriana 57
Valeriana officinalis Linn. 37
valerine 37
Varuna 54
Vasaka 41
vasakin 41
vascinol 13
vasicine 13, 41
vasicinol 41
vasicinone 13, 41
Vavding 172
veratramine 45
Veratrum viride Aiton 45
vernolepin 58
vernomenin 58
Vernomygdin 58
Vernonia 58
Vernonia amygdalina 58
Vernonia cinerea 102
Vernonia cinerea—Sahadevi 228
Vibhitaki 185
Vidarikanda 22
Vilayati piaz 91
vinblastine 17
Vinca 17

Vinca pusilla 17
Vinca rosea 17
vincarodine 17
vincristine 17
Vishnukranta 21
Visnaga 150
visnagin 150
vitamin C 206, 209
Vitamin E 212
vitamin P 209
vitamins A and C 160
Vitex negundo Linn. 79
Vitex negundo—Nirgundi 225, 227
Vitis quadrangula Wall. 111
Volatile Oils 59
Volatile oils 55
volatile oils 2

W. fruticosa Kurz 164
W. tinctoria R. Br 47
W. tomentosa Roem. & Shult. 47
wedelolactone 148
Wild Indigo 169
Willow 227
Wintergreen 69
Witch Hazel 182
withaferin 111
Withania somnifera 225
Withania somnifera Dunal 111
Withania somnifera—

Ashwagandha 224, 228
withanolide 49
withanolides 50, 111
withanone 111
withasomnine 112
withastramonolide 49
Wood Apple 148
Woodfordia floribunda Salisb 164
Woodfordia fruticosa—Dhataki 226
Wormseed 82, 83
Wormwood 229
Wrightia arborea Mabb. 47
Wu-wei-zi 154

Xanthones 146
xanthopurpurin 179
xanthotoxin 65
Xeromphis spinosa 125

Ya-Danzi 114

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