Download Minerals - John P. Rafferty PDF

TitleMinerals - John P. Rafferty
File Size7.7 MB
Total Pages358
Table of Contents
                            TITLE
COPYRIGHT
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1: THE NATURE OF MINERALS
	NOMENCLATURE
	OCCURENCE AND FORMATION
	MINERAL STRUCTURE
		MORPHOLOGY
		INTERNAL STRUCTURE
		POLYMORPHISM
		CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
		MINERAL FORMULAS
		COMPOSITIONAL VARIATION
		CHEMICAL BONDING
		PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
CHAPTER 2: MINERAL CLASSIFICATION AND ASSOCIATIONS
	CLASSIFICATION OF MINERALS
		NATIVE ELEMENTS
		SULFIDES
		SULFOSALTS
		OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES
		HALIDES
		CARBONATES
		NITRATES
		BORATES
		SULFATES
		PHOSPHATES
		SILICATES
	MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
		ASSEMBLAGE AND THE PHASE RULE
		PHASE DIAGRAMS
CHAPTER 3: MINERAL DEPOSITS
	GEOCHEMICALLY ABUNDANT AND SCARCE METALS
	ORE MINERALS
		NATIVE METALS
		SULFIDES
		OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES
		CARBONATES AND SILICATES
	FORMATION OF MINERAL DEPOSITS
		MAGMATIC CONCENTRATION
		HYDROTHERMAL SOLUTION
		GROUNDWATER
		SEAWATER OR LAKE WATER
		RAINWATER
		FLOWING SURFACE WATER
		ALLUVIAL PLACERS
		BEACH PLACERS
	METALLOGENIC PROVINCES AND EPOCHS
CHAPTER 4: THE SILICATES
	AMPHIBOLES
		CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
		CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
		PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
		ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE
	FELDSPARS
		CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
		CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
		PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
		ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE
		USES
	FELDSPATHOIDS
		CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
		PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
		ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE
		USES
	GARNETS
		CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
		CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
		PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
		ORIGIN AND OCCURENCE
		USES
	JADE
	OLIVINES
		CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
		CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
		PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
		CRYSTAL HABIT AND FORM
		ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE
	PYROXENES
		CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
		CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
		PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
		ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE
	ZEOLITES
CHAPTER 5: MICAS AND CLAY MINERALS
	MICAS
		CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
		CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
		PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
		ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE
		USES
	CLAY MINERALS
		STRUCTURE
		CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
		OCCURRENCE
		ORIGIN
		INDUSTRIAL USES
CHAPTER 6: SILICA MINERALS
	PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
	ORIGIN AND OCCURENCE
		SOLUBILITY OF SILICA MINERALS
		THE SILICA PHASE DIAGRAM
	USES
	INDIVIDUAL SILICA MINERALS
		QUARTZ
		CHALCEDONY
		JASPER, CHERT, AND FLINT
		HIGH QUARTZ (ß-QUARTZ)
		TRIDYMITE
		CRISTOBALITE
		OPAL
		VITREOUS SILICA
		MELANOPHLOGITE
		KEATITE
		COESITE AND STISHOVITE
CHAPTER 7: CARBONATES AND OTHER MINERALS
	THE CARBONATES
		ARAGONITE
		CALCITE
		DOLOMITE
	OTHER COMMON ROCK-FORMING MINERALS
		MAGNETITE AND CHROMITE
		HALITE, GYPSUM, AND ANHYDRITE
		EPIDOTE
		HEMATITE
		LIMONITE
	OTHER MINERAL GROUPS
		ARSENATE MINERALS
		HALIDE MINERALS
		NITRATE AND IODATE MINERALS
		OXIDE MINERALS
		PHOSPHATE MINERALS
		SULFATE MINERALS
		SULFIDE MINERALS
		SULFOSALTS
	CONCLUSION
GLOSSARY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
	MINERAL DEPOSITS
	SILICA MINERALS
	AMPHIBOLES
	FELDSPARS AND FELDSPATHOIDS
	OLIVINES
	PYROXENES
	CALCITE
	DOLOMITE
	CLAY MINERALS
INDEX
BACK COVER
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 179

7 Minerals 7

160

quantities of that jadestone began entering the country
from Myanmar via Yunnan province.

As early as the Neolithic period the Chinese were
carving jade into tools and simple cult objects in the
form of flat disks with circular orifices at their centre.
During the Shang dynasty (18th–12th century � � � ), they
began making small ornamental plaques with decorative
designs of animals incised on them in low relief. From the
later part of the Chou dynasty (about 500 � � � ), the intro-
duction of iron tools made more accomplished carvings
possible, and jade began to be made into a wide variety
of utilitarian and luxury objects, such as belt hooks and
ornaments, sword and scabbard accoutrements, hollow
vessels, and, most importantly, sculpture in the round.
The craft of jade carving in China attained maturity
toward the close of the Chou dynasty in 255 � � � , with
designs of unsurpassed excellence and beauty, and the
tradition continued for the next 2,000 years.

The reign (1735–96) of the great Ch’ing-dynasty
emperor Ch’ien-lung was a particularly important period
for jade carving. Under his patronage and in those times
of exceptional prosperity and luxury, thousands of carved
jades were added to the imperial collections, and the mate-
rial was applied to countless new decorative, ceremonial,
and religious uses in the Forbidden City at Peking and in
the homes of nobles and officials. Greater quantities of
jade were entering China than ever before, and emerald-
green jadeite from Myanmar became as highly esteemed
as the finest nephrite from Sinkiang. Fabulous prices were
paid for high-quality carvings of people, animals, and
plants; bottles, urns, vases, and other vessels; and all sorts
of personal accessories.

The Aztecs, Mayas, and other pre-Columbian Indian
peoples of Mexico and Central America carved jadeite
for use as ornaments, amulets, and badges of rank. Nearly

Page 180

161

all of these Mesoamerican jades are of various shades of
green, with emerald green the most highly prized colour
among the Aztecs; their jade carvings comprise plaques,
figurines, small masks, pendants, and implements. The
appreciation of jade died out in Mesoamerica after the
Spanish conquest in the 16th century, however. The
source for all Mesoamerican jade is the Motagua Valley in
Guatemala.

Until the landing of Europeans there in the 18th cen-
tury, the Maoris of New Zealand were entirely ignorant
of metals, and the most highly prized of their industrial
stones was nephrite, from which they made axes, knives,
chisels, adzes, and the short swords, or mere, of their chiefs.
These jade swords served not only as weapons but as sym-
bols of authority and were usually worked from stone of
specially fine colour or distinctive marking.

Several varieties of the mineral serpentine superfi-
cially resemble nephrite and are sometimes fraudulently
sold as such, but they can be distinguished by their rela-
tive softness. Another deceptive practice is that of dyeing
colourless pieces of jade green to simulate high-quality
stone. The most successful imitations of jadeite are com-
pletely artificial and consist of a heavy lead glass that has
been cleverly tinted to imitate jadeite’s distinctive apple-
green colour.

OliViNES

Olivines make up a group of common magnesium, iron
silicate minerals. They are an important rock-forming
mineral group. Magnesium-rich olivines are abundant
in low-silica mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and are
believed to be the most abundant constituent of the Earth’s
upper mantle. Olivine also occurs in high-temperature
metamorphic rocks, lunar basalts, and some meteorites.

7 The Silicates 7

Page 357

7 Minerals 7

338

V

vanadate minerals, 64, 273,
305–306, 319

van der Waals bonds/forces, 19,
22–23, 52, 205

veins, explanation of, 91–92
vermiculite, 196, 207, 208, 210,

211, 212, 215, 217, 219, 221, 225
vitreous silica/lechatelierite, 228,

231, 233, 244–245

volcanogenic massive sulfide
(VMS) deposits, 94–95,
101, 110

W
West, J., 198

Z
zeolites, 69, 111, 147, 184–186

Similer Documents