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TitleNeonatology at a Glance
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size14.6 MB
Total Pages220
Table of Contents
                            Title Page
Copyright Page
Contents
Preface
Contributors
How to use this textbook
About the companion website
Part 1 Introduction
	Chapter 1 Milestones in neonatology
		Thermal regulation
		Nutrition
		Rhesus hemolytic disease
		Antibiotics
		Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
		Development of neonatal intensive care
		Challenges for the future
	Chapter 2 Epidemiology
		Births
		Maternal mortality
		Perinatal mortality
		Neonatal mortality
		Epidemiologic data collection
		Infant mortality
Part 2 Perinatal medicine
	Chapter 3 Perinatal medicine
		Neonatal involvement in perinatal care
		Neonatal Networks
	Chapter 4 Prepregnancy care, prenatal screening and fetal medicine
		Fetal medicine
	Chapter 5 Maternal medical conditions
		Diabetes mellitus
			Fetal problems
			Neonatal problems
		Type 2 and gestational diabetes
		Maternal red blood cell alloimmunization
			Rhesus hemolytic disease
		Perinatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia
	Chapter 6 Intrauterine growth restriction
		Definition
		Etiology
			Maternal
			Placental
			Fetal
		Pathophysiology
		Management
			Postnatal
	Chapter 7 Multiple births
		Pregnancy complications
		Neonatal complications
	Chapter 8 Preterm delivery
		Causes
		Epidemiological risk factors
		Prevention
		Management
			Antenatal corticosteroids
			Preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM)
			Tocolysis
			Magnesium sulfate
		Delivery
	Chapter 9 Birth defects and genetic disorders
		Chromosomal disorders
			Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)
			Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome)
			Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome)
	Chapter 10 Maternal drugs affecting the fetus and newborn infant
		Neonatal withdrawal (abstinence) syndrome
			Clinical assessment
			Treatment
			Cocaine
		Medicines
	Chapter 11 Congenital infection
		Clinical features
		Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
			Infected infants
			Diagnosis
			Treatment
			Other points
		Congenital toxoplasmosis
		Rubella
		Congenital syphilis
		Varicella: chickenpox, varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection
			Early in pregnancy
			Late in pregnancy
		Parvovirus B19
Part 3 Delivery
	Chapter 12 Adaptation to extrauterine life
		Physiologic changes in fetal–neonatal transition
		Abnormal transition from fetal to extrauterine life
		The Apgar score
		Asphyxia
	Chapter 13 Neonatal resuscitation and post-resuscitation care
		Preparation
			Before delivery
			Specific questions to consider
		Cord clamping
		Temperature control
			Action
		Initial assessment at birth
		A – Airway
		B – Breathing
			Assessment
			Action
			Mask ventilation
			Achieving lung inflation
		Endotracheal intubation
			Indications
		C – Circulation
		Drugs
		Withholding and discontinuing resuscitation
		Post-resuscitation care in the delivery room
	Chapter 14 Hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy
		Pathogenic mechanisms
		Compensatory mechanisms
		Primary and delayed injury
		Clinical manifestations
		Clinical staging of hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy
		Outcome
	Chapter 15 Birth injuries
		Common or important birth injuries
Part 4 The normal newborn infant
	Chapter 16 Routine care of the newborn infant
		Screening
			Biochemical screening (Newborn bloodspot)
			Audiology
			Transcutaneous bilirubin
			Other possible screening tests
		Health promotion
		Discharge
	Chapter 17 Routine examination of the newborn infant
		Preparation
		The infant
		Routine examination of newborn infants
	Chapter 18 Neurologic examination
		States of alertness
		Visual fixing and following
		Hearing
		Consolability
		Head circumference
		Face (cranial nerves)
		Posture and spontaneous motor activity
			Posture
			Passive tone in limbs and trunk
			Active tone in limbs and trunk
			Primary reflexes
			Deep tendon reflexes
			Plantar responses
	Chapter 19 Care and support for parents
		Communicating with parents
			Antenatal identification of fetal abnormality or potential abnormality
			Admission of the infant to the neonatal unit
			Infants with serious congenital malformations
	Chapter 20 Feeding
		Nutritional characteristics of human milk compared with unmodified cow’s milk
			Protein
			Fat
			Carbohydrate
			Minerals
			Vitamins
		Formula
	Chapter 21 Minor abnormalities in the first few days
	Chapter 22 Common problems of term infants
		Anticipation
		Overview of common medical problems
Part 5 The sick newborn infant
	Chapter 23 Admission to the neonatal unit
		Welcoming parents and families
		Open access
		Explanation and facilitating communication
		Assisting attachment
		Providing a family-friendly environment
	Chapter 24 Developmental care
		Observing newborn behavior
		The nursery environment
		Adapting care
	Chapter 25 Stabilizing the sick newborn infant
		Heart rate
			What information can be obtained by monitoring heart rate?
		Circulation
			How is the need for circulatory support determined?
	Chapter 26 Respiratory support
		Forms of respiratory support
		Supplemental oxygen therapy
		Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
			High-flow nasal therapy
			Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (NIMV)
		Positive-pressure ventilation (PPV)
			Indications
			Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV)
			Patient-triggered ventilation (PTV) and synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)
		High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV)
		Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)
		Respiratory failure
		Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
Part 6 The preterm infant
	Chapter 27 Preterm infants and their complications
		Morbidity
		Mortality
	Chapter 28 Lung development and surfactant
		Structural development
		Surfactant
		Clinical implications of surfactant deficiency
			Antenatal corticosteroids
		Surfactant therapy
	Chapter 29 Respiratory distress syndrome
		Risk factors
		Pathology
		Pathogenesis
		Clinical features
			Natural course
		Management
		Complications
			Air leaks
			Pulmonary hemorrhage
	Chapter 30 Temperature control
		Hypothermia
		Evaporative heat loss in preterm infants
		Keeping neonates warm
			Incubators
			Radiant warmers
			Combined incubators with inbuilt radiant warmers
	Chapter 31 Growth and nutrition
		Growth
		Nutrition
			Which milk?
			Supplements
			Feeding
	Chapter 32 Intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia
		Diagnosis
		Clinical features
		Laboratory findings
		Management
		Prognosis
		Prevention
	Chapter 33 Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
		Ductal closure
		Risk factors
		Clinical features
		Investigations
			Chest X-ray
			Echocardiography with pulsed color Doppler
		Management
			Medical management
			Surgical closure
	Chapter 34 Infection, jaundice, anemia, osteopenia of prematurity
		Infection
			Early-onset infection (<72 hours)
			Late-onset sepsis (>72 hours)
			Fungal infections
			Presentation and management
		Jaundice
		Anemia
			Treatment
		Osteopenia of prematurity
	Chapter 35 Apnea, bradycardia and desaturations, retinopathy of prematurity
		Apnea, bradycardia and desaturations
			Definition
			Classification
			Episodes of desaturation
			Causes
			Treatment
			Prognosis
		Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
			Screening
			Treatment
	Chapter 36 Necrotizing enterocolitis
		Risk factors
		Clinical features
		Laboratory findings
		Radiologic abnormalities
		Management
		Sequelae
		Prevention
	Chapter 37 Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
		Definition
		Predisposing factors
		Clinical features
		Investigations
		Management
		Long-term consequences of severe BPD
		Strategies for prevention
	Chapter 38 Outcome of preterm infants
		Growth
		Medical complications
		Disability and impairment
		Cognitive impairment
		Behavioral outcomes
		School performance
Part 7 Neonatal problems
	Chapter 39 Respiratory distress in term infants
		Common causes
			Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTNB)
		Less common causes
			Pneumonia
			Meconium aspiration
			Pneumothorax
			Heart failure
			Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN)
		Rare causes
			Surfactant deficiency
			Diaphragmatic hernia
			Milk aspiration
	Chapter 40 Upper airway disorders
		Cleft lip and palate
		Choanal atresia
			The condition
			Main problem
			Treatment
		Pierre Robin sequence
			Management
	Chapter 41 Jaundice
		Significance of severe hyperbilrubinemia
		Causes of early-onset jaundice (<24 hours)
			Hemolysis
			Congenital infection
		Causes of jaundice 24 hours to 2 weeks
			Breast-feeding jaundice
			Infection
			Other causes
		Clinical examination and assessment
		Investigations
			Further tests, other than total bilirubin, that may be required (but in most infants no pathologic cause is found)
		Management
			Phototherapy
			Exchange transfusion
			Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)
			Discharge and follow-up
		Prolonged jaundice (>14 days)
	Chapter 42 Neonatal infection
		Bacterial sepsis
			Early-onset sepsis (EOS): <72 hours of birth
			Late-onset sepsis (LOS): >72 hours after birth
		Risk factors
			Early-onset infection
			Late-onset nosocomial infection
		Clinical presentation
		Investigations
		Interpretation of laboratory investigations
			Blood cultures:
			Blood count – infection is suggested by:
			C-reactive protein/procalcitonin
			CSF – in meningitis:
	Chapter 43 Specific bacterial infections
		Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection
		Listeria monocytogenes
		Gram-negative infection
		Conjunctivitis
			Sticky but white eyes
			Purulent conjunctivitis with swelling of eyelids (Fig. 43.3)
		Skin
			Bullous impetigo
			Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS)
	Chapter 44 Viral infections
		Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
			Risk of vertical transmission
			Neonatal infection
			Diagnosis
			Management
		Hepatitis B (HBV)
			Prevention
		Hepatitis C
		HIV
			Factors which increase transmission
			Interventions that reduce transmission
			Diagnosis
			Management
	Chapter 45 Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
		Hypoglycemia
			Risk factors
			Causes
			Clinical features
			Monitoring
			Investigation
			Management
		Hyperglycemia
	Chapter 46 Inborn errors of metabolism
		Age of presentation
		When to suspect an inborn error of metabolism
			Clinical features
			Suggestive clues
			Differential diagnosis
		Management
	Chapter 47 Gastrointestinal disorders
		Vomiting
			Causes
			Diagnostic clues
			Investigations
			Management
		Gastroesophageal reflux
			Associated features
			Investigations
			Management
		Esophageal atresia
			Presentation
			Investigations
			Management
		Abdominal masses
		Abdominal wall defects
			Omphalocele (Exomphalos)
			Gastroschisis
		Imperforate anus
	Chapter 48 Gastrointestinal obstruction
		Causes
		Diagnostic clues
		Clinical presentation
		Diagnosis
		Management
		Some specific conditions
			Esophageal atresia (Chapter 47)
			Pyloric stenosis
			Duodenal atresia
			Malrotation
			Meconium ileus
			Meconium plug syndrome
			Hirschsprung disease
	Chapter 49 Cardiac disorders
		Risk factors
		Presentation
		Antenatal diagnosis
		Heart Murmur
		Heart failure
			Left-to-right shunting (high-output failure)
			Left ventricular outflow obstruction
			Pump failure
		Cyanosis
		Selected causes of cyanotic congenital heart disease
			Transposition of the great arteries
			Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC)
		Oxygen saturation screening for critical congenital heart disease
		Investigations
			Chest X-ray
			ECG
			Hyperoxia test
			Echocardiography with Doppler (see Chapter 79)
			Cardiac catheterization
		Management of congenital heart disease
	Chapter 50 Renal and urinary tract anomalies diagnosed prenatally
		Embryology
		Structural abnormalities of the kidneys
			Outflow obstruction
			Polycystic kidney disease
			Multicystic dysplactic kidney (MCDK)
			Renal agenesis
	Chapter 51 Renal and urinary tract disorders
		Electrolyte problems
			Sodium
			Potassium (normal range 3.5–5.5 mmol/L)
			Calcium and phosphate
		Urinary tract infection (UTI)
			Presentation
			Investigations
			Diagnosis
			Management
		Acute kidney injury, AKI (acute renal failure)
			Causes
			Clinical features
			Investigations
			Management
	Chapter 52 Genital disorders
		Inguinal hernia
		Hydrocele
		Undescended testis
			Examination
			Investigations
			Management
		Torsion of the testis
		Hypospadias
		Circumcision
	Chapter 53 Disorders of sex development
		Sex development
			Birth
			Investigations
			Management
		Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
	Chapter 54 Anemia and polycythemia
		Anemia
			Physiology
		Clinical features (Table 54.1) and management
		Polycythemia
			Causes
			Clinical features and complications
			Treatment
	Chapter 55 Neutrophil and thrombotic disorders
		Thrombotic disorders (thrombophilia)
			Predisposing factors
			Maternal and familial conditions associated with thrombophilia
			Inherited causes of thrombosis
			Diagnosis
			Management
	Chapter 56 Coagulation disorders
		Thrombocytopenia
		Abnormal coagulation
			Indications for performing clotting studies
			Investigations
			Interpretation of abnormal clotting studies (Table 56.3)
			Management of abnormal clotting
	Chapter 57 Dermatological disorders
		Goals of neonatal skin care
		Diaper (nappy) dermatitis
		Infection
		Vascular skin lesions
			Port wine stain (nevus flammeus)
			Strawberry nevus (hemangioma)
			Congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) (pigmented nevus)
			Genetic syndromes
	Chapter 58 Seizures and perinatal strokes
	Chapter 59 Neural tube defects and hydrocephalus
		Neural tube defects
			Prevalence
		Anencephaly
		Encephalocele
		Spina bifida
			Spina bifida occulta
			Meningocele
			Myelomeningocele
		Hydrocephalus
			Causes
			Clinical features
			Monitoring and treatment
			Hydrocephalus in preterm infants
	Chapter 60 The hypotonic infant
		Clues from the history
		Causes and clinical features
		Investigations
		Some specific conditions
			Central
			Peripheral (rare)
	Chapter 61 Bone and joint disorders
		Congenital abnormalities of the hip and feet
			Developmental dysplasia of the hip, DDH
			Talipes equinovarus
		Infection
			Septic arthritis
			Osteomyelitis
		Skeletal dysplasias
			Achondroplasia
			Osteogenesis imperfecta
	Chapter 62 Hearing and vision
		Hearing
			Neonatal hearing screening
		Vision
			Lesions needing urgent ophthalmologic referral
			Other congenital abnormalities
			Other eye conditions
Part 8 Aspects of neonatal intensive care
	Chapter 63 Pain
		Development of pain pathways in the fetus and preterm infant
		Factors that modify pain responses
		Assessment of pain
		Pain assessment scales
		Minimizing pain
			Non-pharmacologic
			Pharmacologic approaches
	Chapter 64 Pharmacology
		Drug prescription and administration
		Drug monitoring
		Drugs in breast milk
		Drug licensing and neonatalogy
	Chapter 65 Quality improvement
		Quality assurance
		Clinical audit
		Simulation
		Critical incident reporting
	Chapter 66 Critical incidents
		Extravasation of intravenous infusions (Figs 66.2 and 66.3)
			Cause
			Prevention
			What to do if extensive extravasation
		Excessive fluid volume infused
			Cause
			Prevention
		Giving wrong breast milk to wrong patient
			Cause
			Prevention
			What to do if occurs
		Complications of umbilical arterial catheters (UAC)
			Incorrect vessel
			Thrombosis/emboli/vasoconstriction
		Blood loss from arterial catheters
			Cause
			Prevention
		Ischemic damage from peripheral artery catheters
			Cause
			Prevention
		Portal vein thrombosis from umbilical venous catheters
			Cause
			Prevention
		Extravasation of parenteral nutrition (PN) from central venous lines
			Cause
			Prevention
		Burns and scalds
			Cause
			Prevention
		Scarring of skin
			Cause
			Prevention
		Nasal damage from tracheal tube
			Cause
			Prevention
		Nasal damage from nasal CPAP
			Cause
			Prevention
		Tracheal stenosis
			Cause
			Prevention
		Infection
			Cause
			Prevention
		Aspiration pneumonia from misplaced gavage (nasogastric) feeding tubes
			Cause
			Prevention
	Chapter 67 Evidence-based medicine
		What is evidence-based medicine (EBM)?
		Steps in the practice of evidence-based medicine
		Examples of evidence-based medicine in neonatology
			Beneficial therapies
			Harmful therapies
	Chapter 68 Ethics
		The withholding or withdrawal of life-saving medical treatment
	Chapter 69 Research and consent
		Research
			Practical difficulties in conducting research in infants
			Ethical difficulties in conducting research in infants
		Consent in clinical practice
	Chapter 70 Palliative and end-of-life care
		Care Plans
		Place of care
		Support for the parents, siblings and family
		Care after death
		Caring for staff
		Organ donation
		Autopsy
			Why is it performed?
			What is involved in an autopsy?
			Consent
			Are there alternatives to autopsy?
	Chapter 71 Discharge from hospital
		Discharge planning
	Chapter 72 Follow-up of high-risk infants
		Goals
		Criteria
		Organization and timing
		Who should conduct neonatal follow-up?
		Components
		Outcome measures
Part 9 Global
	Chapter 73 Global neonatology
		Geography of newborn deaths
		Causes of newborn deaths
		Timing of newborn deaths
		Maternal health and obstetric care
		Newborn care in low-resource settings – what works?
			Care around the time of birth
			Hospital-based care
Part 10 Transport
	Chapter 74 Transport of the sick newborn infant
		Infrastructure
		Why transfer?
		Equipment
		Documentation
			A – Assessment
			C – Taking Control of the situation and Communication with all teams involved
			E – Evaluation of the infant to be moved.
			P – Preparation by transport team
			P – Packaging
			T – Transfer
Part 11 Practical procedures
	Chapter 75 Intubation and chest tubes
		Endotracheal intubation
			Indications
			Procedure
		Chest tubes (chest drain)
			Indications
			Technique
			Complications
		Needle thoracotomy (chest needling)
			Indication
			Technique
		Pleural tap
			Indications
			Technique
			Complications
	Chapter 76 Common practical procedures
	Chapter 77 Umbilical catheters and intraosseous cannulation
		Umbilical catheters
			Umbilical artery catheter (UAC)
			Umbilical vein catheter (UVC)
		Intraosseous cannulation
	Chapter 78 Central venous catheters and exchange transfusions
		Central venous catheters (CVC)
			Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC lines)
			Surgically tunneled subclavian or jugular line
		Exchange transfusion
			Indications
			Technique (see video: Haemolytic disease of the newborn)
			Monitoring
			Complications
	Chapter 79 Cranial ultrasound
		Indications
		Lesions that can be identified
			Preterm infants
			All infants
		Color Doppler flow velocity measurements
		Additional windows
		Limitations of ultrasound
		Practical issues
	Chapter 80 Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG)
		Use of aEEG in neonates
			Term infants
			Preterm infants
		Cerebral function monitor
			Interpretation
		Seizure detection and response to anticonvulsants
		Artifacts on an aEEG trace
		aEEG as a prognostic tool in HIE
		Use of aEEG in preterm infants
	Chapter 81 Perinatal neuroimaging
	Chapter 82 Echocardiography for the neonatologist
		Views (see videos)
			Four-chamber view
			Short-axis view
			Long-axis view
			Subcostal view
		Assessment of left ventricular function in critically ill neonates
		Assessment of PPHN
	Chapter 83 Gestational age assessment, BP, severity of illness scores, jaundice treatment chart
		Blood pressure charts
		Severity of illness scores
		Jaundice treatment chart
Index
EULA
                        

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