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TitlePersonality Traits, 3rd edition
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Total Pages602
Table of Contents
Preface to the third edition
Preface to the second edition
Preface to the first edition
PART I The nature of personality traits
	1 The trait concept and personality theory
		Introduction: conceptions of traits
			Everyday conceptions of traits
			Scientific conceptions of traits
		A brief history of traits
			The four humours
			Beginnings of the science of traits
			The first empirical studies
			The beginnings of trait theory
		Psychometric approaches to identifying personality dimensions
			Questionnaire construction and psychometrics
			Psychometrics of single scales
			Psychometrics of multiple traits: factor analysis
			Limitations of factor analysis
			Further techniques of factor analysis
		Primary factors of personality: the 16PF and other questionnaires
			The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)
			Other systems of primary factors
		Higher-order factors: the 'Big Five’ or the 'Gigantic Three’?
			H. J. Eysenck's three factor model
			Five factor models: Costa and McCrae, and others
		Current conceptions of personality structure
			The consensus from the lexical approach
			The consensus from questionnaire studies
			Remaining doubts: psychometric and theoretical issues
		Further reading
	2 Persons, situations and interactionism
		Traits and situations
			The situationist critique of traits
			Testing consistency in empirical studies
			Consistency of behaviour: the role of context
			Implications of the situationist controversy for trait research
		Are traits universal across cultures?
			Cross-cultural research on traits
			Interactions of personality and culture
			Cross-cultural generality of traits: conclusions
		Further reading
	3 Personality across the life span
		Trait stability
			Empirical studies of stability
			Studies of the Big Five and Eysenck traits
			Stability: further issues
			Measures of temperament
			The relationship between temperament and personality
		Temperament, personality and stability: longitudinal studies
		Further reading
	4 Stable traits and transient states
		Introduction: the place of states in trait theory
		Trait-state models
			Zuckerman's criteria for state measures
			States as mediators of trait effects
		State dimensions: affect, mood and self-report arousal
			Two mood dimensions: energy and tension
			Three-dimensional models: separating pleasure from arousal
			Differentiating negative emotions
			Validity of mood scales
		Beyond mood: additional state domains
			Cognitive aspects of state
			Subjective states and the 'trilogy of mind’
		Traits and states: empirical studies
			Correlational studies: extraversion and neuroticism
			Beyond positive and negative affectivity: other traits, other states
			Experimental studies
			Explaining the state correlates of extraversion and neuroticism
		Further reading
	5 Alternative views of personality: challenges to trait theory
		Traits in psychodynamic theory
			The contribution of psychoanalysis
			Correspondences between psychodynamic and trait approaches to personality structure
			Empirical studies of psychoanalysis and personality
		The unconscious: contemporary studies
			Experimental studies of the unconscious
			Implications for trait theory
		Assessment of implicit traits
			The Implicit Association Test
			Other implicit personality tests
			Critique of implicit tests
		Humanistic and phenomenological approaches
			Investigating the self
			The self-construction of personality
			Conflict and pathology
			Contemporary studies of self-directed motivation
PART II Causes of personality traits
	6 Genes, environments and personality traits
			Three basic designs
			Twin studies
			Adoption studies
			Molecular genetic (quantitative trait loci, QTL) studies
		Twin studies
			A gene–environment model of extraversion in five twin studies
			Non-additive genetic variance
			The equal environments assumption
		Other research designs
			Adoption studies
			Twin family studies
			Separated twin studies
			Modelling all study designs together
		Genes, environment and multiple personality traits
		Further issues in genetic research
			The environment
			Personality change
			Genetic covariation
		Molecular genetic studies of personality
		Further reading
	7 The psychobiology of traits
		Introduction: neuropsychological approaches to personality
		Ground-plans for neuropsychological theory
			Eysenck's (1967) arousal theory
			An alternative conceptual nervous system: Gray (1991)
			The complexity of personality: Zuckermans (2005) model
			From brain to behaviour: testing neuropsychological theories
		Psychophysiological techniques: an outline and examples
			Electroencephalography (EEG)
			Brain average evoked potentials (EPs)
			Electrodermal activity
			Heart rate
			Functional brain imaging techniques
		Personality and brain imaging
			PET and SPET studies
			fMRI studies
			MRI, personality traits and molecular genetics
		Personality and arousal: towards an integrated theory?
			The arousal concept
			Predicting relationships between personality and arousal
			Studies of extraversion, the EEG and evoked potentials
			Extraversion and the autonomic nervous system
			Neuroticism and arousal
			Psychoticism, impulsivity and sensation seeking
			Traits and arousal: conclusions
		Personality and sensitivity to motivational stimuli
			Initial studies
			Revisions to RST
			Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory: conclusions
		Psychophysiology: where next?
		Further reading
	8 The social psychology of traits
		Introduction: personality and social behaviour
			Social-cognitive approaches to personality
			Traits and social behaviour
			A social-psychological agenda for trait psychology
		Personality development: social-psychological perspectives
			Interactionist perspectives on development
			Development of self-efficacy
			Individual differences in attachment
		Consistencies in social knowledge and cognition
			The self-schema
			Social-cognitive perspectives on behavioural (in)consistency
		Traits and processes: agreeableness and social behaviour
			Agreeableness and social behaviour
			Cognitive substrate of agreeableness
		'Social-psychological’ traits
			Belief and attitude systems
			Self-related traits
		A rapprochement between social psychology and trait theory?
		Further reading
PART III Consequences and applications
	9 Stress
		Introduction: the nature of stress
			Defining stress
			Measuring stress
		Stress and physiological reactivity
			Individual differences in the physiological stress response
		Neuroticism and stress vulnerability
			Neuroticism and stress outcomes in everyday life
			Vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms
			The problem of subjectivity: causal relationships between neuroticism and stress
		Transactional perspectives on personality and stress: mediator and moderator hypotheses
			Transactional models of stress: appraisal
			Traits and the transactional model
			Mediators of neuroticism
			Additional traits for stress vulnerability
				Locus of control
				Optimism and hope
				Dispositional self-consciousness
				Resources influencing secondary cognitive appraisal
				Social support
				Spiritual or religious coping
		Neuroticism, stress and emotional disorders: a self-regulative perspective
			Building a self-regulative model: basic constructs
			Neuroticism within the SREF model
			Vulnerability factors in mental disorder
		Further reading
	10 Traits and health
			Models of the association between personality and health
			Personality and longevity
		Heart disease
			Personality and myocardial infarction
		Neuroticism as a risk factor for multiple diseases
		Stress and health
			Stress and coronary disease
			Stress and the common cold
			Stress buffers: optimism, hope, spirituality and happiness in relation to illness
		Traits and health-related behaviours
		Life course approaches to personality, stress and illness
		Models of psychosomatic illness
		Further reading
	11 Abnormal personality traits?
		Personality disorders: concept and classification
			History of personality disorder concepts
			Classificatory schemes for personality disorder
			Personality disorders: descriptions of the individual disorders
		Problems with personality disorders in current categorical systems
			The problems of labelling and tautology
			The problem of construct overlap
			Improving the validity of personality disorder constructs
			Disorder in the DSM system of personality disorder
		Are there abnormal personality traits?
			Dimensional models of abnormal personality
			A dimensional model for the personality disorders
			The four As model of personality disorder
			Individual dimensions of abnormal personality
		Personality disorders and models of normal personality: integrating psychiatry and differential psychology?
			The five factor model as a basis for integration
			DSM-IV personality disorders and the Cloninger and Eysenck personality systems
			Similar hierarchies in normal and abnormal personality
		Further reading
	12 Personality, performance and information processing
		Performance studies and trait theory
			Moderator factors: context-sensitivity and task-dependence
			Key traits in performance research
		Theories of personality and performance
			Psychobiological theories
			Cognitive psychological alternatives
			Cognitive neuroscience approaches
		Extraversion–introversion and performance
			The cognitive patterning of extraversion
			Psychobiological explanations for cognitive patterning
			Cognitive-psychological explanations
			Extraversion and performance: conclusions
		Trait anxiety, neuroticism and performance
			Basic empirical findings
			Anxiety and performance impairment
			Anxiety and attentional bias
			Anxiety and performance: conclusions
		Personality and intelligence
			Empirical associations between personality and intelligence
			Creativity and the personality–intelligence interface
		Further reading
	13 Applications of personality assessment
		Principles of trait assessment
			Choice of questionnaire
				Comprehensive or targeted assessment?
				General or contextualised measurement?
			Broad or narrow traits
			Evaluation of questionnaires
				Response bias
				Response styles
				Impression management
			Practical issues
				Ethical and legal issues
		Educational and clinical applications
			Educational psychology
			Clinical psychology
		Personality and job performance
			Meta-analyses of the Big Five
			Organisational correlates of personality: moderator variables
		Organisational psychology: further applications
			Contextual performance
			Vocational choice
			Career progression and change
			Work satisfaction and stress
		Emotional intelligence
			Assessment of emotional intelligence
			Applications to organisational psychology
		Further reading
	14 Conclusions
		Achievements of trait research
			Psychometric issues
			Biological bases of personality
			Integration with mainstream psychology
			Applications of trait theory
		Towards a theory of traits
			Traditional biological theories of personality
			Multi-component approaches
			A cognitive-adaptive theory
		Traits and the coherence of personality theory
Author index
Subject index

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