Download Plants.as.a.source.of.Natural.antioxidants PDF

TitlePlants.as.a.source.of.Natural.antioxidants
File Size8.6 MB
Total Pages318
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Plants as a Source of Natural Antioxidants
Copyright
Contents
Contributors
Preface
1. Plants of Indian Traditional Medicine with Antioxidant Activity
	1.1 Introduction
	1.2 Some Traditionally used Antioxidant Plants and Methods Used for ScreeningThem
	1.3 Phytochemistry of Antioxidant Plants
	1.4 Reverse Pharmacology with Traditionally used Antioxidant Plants
	1.5 Bioprospecting for Traditionally AntioxidantPlants
	1.6 Conclusion
	References
2. Natural Antioxidants from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 Antioxidant Plants Used in the Chinese System of Medicine
	2.3 Natural Antioxidants from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants
	2.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects
	References
3. Review of the Antioxidant potential of African Medicinal and Food Plants
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 Antioxidant potential of African Medicinal and Food Plants
		3.2.1 Acanthaceae – tribe Justicieae
			Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anderson
			Justicia flava (Vahl) Vahl
		3.2.2 Amaranthaceae
			Amaranthus spinosus L.
		3.2.3 Anacardiaceae
			Anacardium occidentale L.
			Lannea spp.
			Mangifera indica L.
			Pistacia lentiscus L.
		3.2.4 Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae)
			Centella asiatica (L.) Urban
			Pituranthos tortuosus (DC.) Benth. ex Asch. & Schweinf. (syn. Deverra tortuosa (Desf.) DC.)
		3.2.5 Apocynaceae
			Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) Codd.
			Secamone afzelii (Roem. & Schult.) K. Schum.
		3.2.6 Arecaceae
			Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (E. melanococcana Gaertn.)
		3.2.7 Asteraceae (formerly Compositae)
			Bidens pilosa L.
			Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. King & H. Robinson
			Galinsoga parviflora Cav.
			Tridax procumbens L.
			Vernonia amygdalina Del.
		3.2.8 Bignoniaceae
			Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.
			Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) Seem. ex Bureau
			Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv.
		3.2.9 Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae)
			Cakile maritima Scop.
		3.2.10 Burseraceae
			Canarium schweinfurthii Engl.
			Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H.J. Lam
		3.2.11 Cannabaceae
			Celtis africana Burm. f.
		3.2.12 Capparidaceae
			Cleome monophylla L.(syns C. massae Chiov., C. cordata Burch. ex DC., C. monophylla var. cordata (Burch. ex DC.) Sond., C. epilobioides Baker, C. subcordata Steud. ex Oliver)
		3.2.13 Caricaceae
			Carica papaya L.
		3.2.14 Chenopodiaceae
			Chenopodium album L. (syns C. browneanum Roem. & Schult., C. concatenatum Thuill. subsp. striatiforme Murr.,C. lanceolatum R. Br., C. probstii Aellen, C. probstii Aellen f. probsti and C. striatiforme Murr)
		3.2.15 Clusiaceae
			Allanblackia floribunda Oliv.
		3.2.16 Cochlospermaceae
			Cochlospermum tinctorium Perr. ex A. Rich. (syn. C. niloticum Oliv.)
		3.2.17 Chrysobalanaceae
			Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth. (syns P. mobola Oliv., P. gardineri Hemsl.)
		3.2.18 Combretaceae
			Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. & Perr. (syn. A. schimperi Hochst. ex Hutch & Dalziel)
			Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel.
		3.2.19 Convolvulaceae
			Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult.
		3.2.20 Euphorbiaceae
			Acalypha racemosa Wall. ex Baill. (syn. A. paniculata Miq.)
			Euphorbia heterophylla L. (syns E. geniculata Ortega, E. prunifolia Jacq., Poinsettia geniculata (Ortega) Klotzsch & Garcke, P. heterophylla (L.) Klotzsch & Garcke)
			Ricinus communis L.
		3.2.21 Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae)
			Afzelia africana Sm. ex Pers.
			Albizia chevalieri Harms
			Amblygonocarpus andongensis (Welw. ex Oliv) Exell & Torre
			Astragalus spinosus Vahl.
			Bauhinia rufescens Lam.
			Cassia singueana (Del.) Lock (syn. C. sinqueana Del.)
			Peltophorum africanum Sond.
			Prosopis africana (Guill. and Perr.) Taub. (syns P. oblonga Benth., P. lanceolata Benth.)
			Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb
			Senna italica Mill.
			Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (syns Cassia occidentalis L., Ditremexa occidentalis (L.) Britton & Rose ex Britton & P. Wilson)
			Tamarindus indica L.
		3.2.22 Icacinaceae
			Icacina trichantha Oliv.
		3.2.23 Irvingiaceae
			Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O’Rorke) Baill.
		3.2.24 Lamiaceae
			Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br.
		3.2.25 Malvaceae
			Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott & Endl. A. Chev. and C. acuminata (P. Beauv.) Schott & Endl.
			Grewia mollis Juss.
			Hibiscus esculentus L. (syn. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)
			Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum.
		3.2.26 Meliaceae
			Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
			Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss.
		3.2.27 Moraceae
			Ficus exasperata Vahl
		3.2.28 Moringaceae
			Moringa oleifera Lam.
		3.2.29 Musaceae
			Musa paradisiaca L.
		3.2.30 Myrtaceae
			Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (syns Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb., Caryophyllus aromaticus L.)
		3.2.31 Nyctaginaceae
			Boerhavia diffusa L.
		3.2.32 Oleaceae
			Olea europaea L.
		3.2.33 Pedaliaceae
			Ceratotheca triloba (Bernh.) Hook. f.
			Sesamum indicum L.
		3.2.34 Phyllanthaceae
			Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill. (syn. Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle
		3.2.35 Piperaceae
			Piper nigrum L.
		3.2.36 Pittosporaceae
			Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims
		3.2.37 Poaceae (formerly Gramineae)
			Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf
		3.2.38 Polygonaceae
			Emex australis Steinh.
		3.2.39 Portulacacea
			Portulaca oleracea L.
		3.2.40 Rhamnaceae
			Ziziphus mucronata Willd.
		3.2.41 Rutaceae
			Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
		3.2.42 Sapotaceae
			Vitellaria paradoxa (C.F. Gaertn.)
		3.2.43 Solanaceae
			Solanum nigrum L.
		3.2.44 Theaceae
			Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze
		3.2.45 Verbenaceae
			Lantana camara L. (syn. L. tiliifolia auct. non Cham.)
		3.2.46 Vitaceae
			Vitis vinifera L.
		3.2.47 Xanthorrhoeaceae
			Aloe spp.
			Gasteria bicolor Haw.
		3.2.48 Zygophyllaceae
			Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.
			Zygophyllum simplex L. (syn. Tetraena simplex (L.) Beier & Thulin)
	3.3 Conclusion
	Acknowledgement
	References
4. Antioxidant Plants from Brazil
	4.1 Introduction
	4.2 Applications of Antioxidant Substances
	4.3 Brazilian Biodiversity
	4.4 Brazilian Biomes
		4.4.1 The Amazon biome
		4.4.2 Cerrado biome
		4.4.3 Caatinga biome
		4.4.4 Atlantic Forest biome
		4.4.5 Pantanal biome
		4.4.6 Pampa biome
	4.5 Conclusion
	References
5. Antioxidant Characteristics of Korean Edible Wild Plants
	5.1 Introduction
	5.2 Antioxidant Compounds
		5.2.1 Total phenolic content
		5.2.2 Total flavonoid content
	5.3 Antioxidant Activity
		5.3.1 DPPH radical scavenging activity
		5.3.2 Nitrite scavenging activity
		5.3.3 ADH and ALDH activities
	5.4 Cytotoxicity
	5.5 Correlations
	5.6 Conclusion
	References
6. Algae as a Natural Source of Antioxidant Active Compounds
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 Naturally Occurring Compounds
	6.3 Antioxidant Activity of Algae
	6.4 Antioxidant Activity of the Blue-green Alga Spirulina platensis
		6.4.1 Measurement of the antiradical and antioxidative activity of extracts of S. platensis
		6.4.2 Identification and determination of the phenolic compounds in S. platensis extracts
		6.4.3 Discussion of results from the S. platensis studies and other investigations
	6.5 Some Potential Application of Algal Antioxidants
		6.5.1 Nutrition
		6.5.2 Food additives
		6.5.3 Use as a pharmaceutical agent
	6.6 Conclusion
	References
7 Antioxidant Potential of Marine Microorganisms: A Review
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 Sources of Marine Bioactive/Antioxidant Biomolecules
		7.2.1 Marine microalgae as a source of antioxidants
		7.2.2 Marine bacteria as a source of antioxidants
		7.2.3 Marine fungi as a source of antioxidants
	7.3 Conclusion
	References
8. Biotechnologies for Increasing Antioxidant Production from Plants
	8.1 Introduction
	8.2 Supplementing Antioxidants to Enhance Health and Longevity
	8.3 Factors Affecting Availability of Antioxidants of Plant Origin
	8.4 Plant Biotechnology and Antioxidants
		8.4.1 Plant tissue culture
		8.4.2 Cell suspension culture and hairy root culture
		8.4.3 Combinatorial biosynthesis
		8.4.4 Genetic engineering
	8.5 Conclusion
	References
9. Plant-Derived Antioxidants as Food Additives
	9.1 Introduction
	9.2 Food Oxidation and the Use of Antioxidants
		9.2.1 Oxidation mechanisms
		9.2.2 The role of antioxidants
	9.3 Natural Substances of Plant Origin with Powerful Antioxidant Properties
	9.4 The Application of Plant-derived Antioxidants and Antioxidant-containing Extracts in Food Matrices
		9.4.1 Legislated plant-derived antioxidants
			Lipophilic plant derived antioxidants:to cochromanols
			Oregano and lemon balm extracts
		9.4.2 Meat and meat products
		9.4.3 Poultry
		9.4.4 Fish and seafood
		9.4.5 Fats and oils
			Natural antioxidants and frying oils
	9.5 Conclusion
	References
10. Biochemical Activity and Therapeutic Role of Antioxidants in Plants and Humans
	10.1 Introduction
	10.2 Classifying Antioxidants
	10.3 Levels of Defence and Mechanisms of Action of Antioxidants
	10.4 Types of Antioxidants (with Particular Reference to Plants)
		10.4.1 Antioxidants in plants
		10.4.3 Ascorbate peroxidase (APx), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehyroascorbate reductase (MDHAR)
		10.4.4 Catalase (CAT)
		10.4.5 Glutathione peroxidase (GPx)
		10.4.6 Glutathione (GSH)
		10.4.7 Additional proteins/enzymes
		10.4.8 Carotenoids as antioxidants
		10.4.9 Vitamins as antioxidants
		10.4.10 Minerals as antioxidants
		10.4.11 Polyphenols as antioxidants
	10.5 The Role of Antioxidants in Plants
		10.5.1 Plants under biotic stress
		10.5.2 Plants under abiotic stress
			Salt stress
			Drought stress
			Flooding
			Herbicide stress
			Temperature stress
			Oxygen deprivation stress: anoxia and post anoxia
			Atmospheric pollutants: ozone and sulfur dioxide
			Ultraviolet-B radiation
			Heavy metal toxicity
			Mineral nutrient deficiency
	10.6 Role of Antioxidants in Humans
		10.6.1 Cardiovascular diseases
		10.6.2 Carcinogenesis
		10.6.3 Ageing
		10.6.4 Diabetes and diabetic complications
		10.6.5 Neurodegenerative diseases
		10.6.6 Liver diseases
		10.6.7 Eye diseases
	10.7 Concluding Remarks
	References
11. Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants with Antioxidant Activity
	11.1 Antioxidants
		11.1.1 Endogenous antioxidants
	11.2 Free Radical and ReactiveOxygenSpecies (ROS)
	11.2 Free Radical and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
	11.3 Reaction of Free Radicals with Different Biomolecules
		11.3.1 Amino acids
		11.3.2 DNA
		11.3.3 Lipids
	11.4 Protection against OxidativeStress
	11.5 Mechanism of Action of Antioxidants
	11.6 Oxidative Stress and Human Diseases
		11.6.1 Cancer
		11.6.2 Heart disease
		11.6.3 Pulmonary diseases
		11.6.4 Other diseases
	11.7 Phytonutrients
		11.7.1 Acacia catechu (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae)
		11.7.2 Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae)
		11.7.3 Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae)
		11.7.4 Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae)
		11.7.5 Apium graveolens (Apiaceae)
		11.7.6 Bacopa monnieri (Schrophulariaceae)
		11.7.7 Butea monosperma (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)
		11.7.8 Cleome viscosa (Capparaceae)
		11.7.9 Commiphora mukul (Burseraceae)
		11.7.10 Emilia sonchifolia (Asteraceae)
		11.7.11 Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae)
		11.7.12 Eupatorium ayapana (Asteraceae)
		11.7.13 Garcinia kola (Clusiaceae)
		11.7.14 Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae)
		11.7.15 Hieracium pilosella (Asteraceae)
		11.7.16 Momordica dioica (Cucurbitaceae)
		11.7.17 Moringa pterygosperma (Moringaceae)
		11.7.18 Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae)
		11.7.19 Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae)
		11.7.20 Ocimum sanctum and O. tenuiflorum(Lamiaceae)
		11.7.21 Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae)
		11.7.22 Silybum marianum (Asteraceae)
		11.7.23 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae)
		11.7.24 Swietenia mahagoni (Meliaceae)
		11.7.25 Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae)
		11.7.26 Trema cannabina (Cannabaceae)
		11.7.27 Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae
		11.7.28 Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae)
	11.8 Conclusion
	References
12. Endophytic Fungal Associations of Plants and Antioxidant Compounds
	12.1 Introduction
	12.2 Endophytes
	12.3 Endophytes and Biodiversity
	12.4 Products from Endophytes as Antioxidants
	12.5 Conclusions
	References
13. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in the Formation of Antioxidant Compounds
	13.1 Introduction
	13.2 The Rhizosphere and Plant–microbe Interactions
	13.3 Mycorrhizae: the Symbiotic Association
	13.4 Diversity and Function of MycorrhizalFungi
	13.5 What Makes a Plant–Fungus Interaction into a Mycorrhizal Association?
	13.6 Antioxidants and Mycorrhization
	13.7 Mycorrhizae and the Formation of Antioxidants
	13.8 Potential Mechanisms in the Production of Antioxidants by Mycorrhizal Plants
	13.9 Mechanism of Action of Antioxidants
	13.10 Future Prospects and Conclusions
	Acknowledgement
	References
14. Role of Mushrooms as a Reservoir of Potentially Active Natural Antioxidants: An Overview
	14.1 Introduction
	14.2 Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage
	14.3 Antioxidant Defences
	14.4 Mushrooms as Natural Antioxidants
		Examples of the antioxidant activity of mushrooms
	14.5 Conclusion
	References
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Plants as a Source of Natural Antioxidants

Page 159

148 © CAB International 2015. Plants as a Source of Natural Antioxidants (ed. N.K. Dubey)

7.1 Introduction

Marine microbe-based biomolecules are rich
sources of natural antioxidants that are still
very under explored. Biological systems have
their own mechanisms to defend themselves
against the normal production of free radicals,
but excessive generation can overcome the
cellular defence system. Such excess produc-
tion of free radicals can result in the oxidation
of cellular biomolecules and their degrad-
ation, which can result in the development of
chronic degenerative diseases such as coron-
ary heart disease and neurodegeneration. The
occurrence of such diseases can be prevented
by using natural antioxidants.

An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits
the oxidation of other molecules. In biological
systems, antioxidants may act as reducing
agents and they may also scavenge free rad-
icals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS).
ROS are a class of highly reactive molecules,
such as the superoxide anion radical (•O

2
–),

hydrogen peroxide radical and hydroxyl radical
(•OH). ROS are derived from the metabolism
of oxygen, as by-products of biological reac-
tions or from exogenous factors, and can cause
damage to cell membranes and cellular bio-
molecules. Their actions can lead to membrane

lipid peroxidation, decreased mem brane
fluidity and DNA mutations that can lead to
cancer and degenerative diseases (Finkel and
Holbrook, 2000). As noted above, free rad-
icals are also implicated in coronary heart dis-
ease, and in premature ageing, diabetes, cardio-
vascular disease and arthritis, etc. Deficiency
of antioxidants in the diet leads to oxidative
stress, so it is important to identify natural
antioxidative agents that are present in the
foods that are consumed by humans.

Natural antioxidants obtained from
plant, animal or microbial sources are mostly
used as food or food ingredients, and can as-
sist organisms to cope with oxidative stress
caused by free radical damage. Phytochemi-
cals in particular have generated significant
interest as they can be incorporated into high
value products, including functional foods,
nutraceuticals and pharmacologicals. The ma-
jority of these phytochemicals are flavonoids,
isoflavones, flavones, anthocyanins, couma-
rins, lignans, catechins and isocatechins. The
vitamins C and E, β-carotene and α-tocopher-
ol that are present in natural foods are known
to have antioxidant potential as well. Pres-
ently, many antioxidants that are used as food
preservatives/additives are synthetic antioxi-
dants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),

7 Antioxidant Potential of Marine
Microorganisms: A Review

1Vashist N. Pandey,1* Sarad K. Mishra,2 Abhai K. Srivastava1 and
Nidhi Gupta1

1Department of Botany, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, India;
2Department of Biotechnology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, India

*Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected]

mailto:[email protected]

Page 160

Antioxidant Potential of Marine Microorganisms 149

butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and tert-
butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), and these can
have side effects, which would be far less
likely if natural antioxidants were used in-
stead. Synthetic drugs can also be very expen-
sive, and the provision of modern healthcare
to poor people is still a far distant goal because
of the economic constraints (Grover et  al.,
2002). Hence, medicines that are based on
easily available plant materials need to be
developed in order to reduce the costs of
treatment or cure of various diseases.

The marine environment comprises nearly
three quarters of the earth’s surface, and can be
considered a soup of essentially all imaginable
types of microbes (Konig and Wright, 1999). As
a result of the difference in conditions of mar-
ine and terrestrial environments, marine micro-
organisms produce biomolecules that are dif-
ferent from those of terrestrial counterparts.
These microorganisms have played a signifi-
cant role in the evolution of life and represent a
major untapped resource of valuable bioactive
compounds, such as pigments, antioxidants,
polysaccharides, sterols, fatty acids and vita-
mins (Mata et al., 2010). The novel compounds
that are produced by marine microorganisms
enable them to withstand the extreme vari-
ations in pressure, salinity, temperature, and so
forth, that prevail in their environment, and
these chemicals are unique in their diversity
and their structural and functional features
(Kathiresan et al., 2008).

The vast resource of marine flora offers
great potential for discovery of novel drugs,
and it is increasingly being recognized that
natural products and phytochemical entities
may be useful in finding potential drugs with
greater efficacy and specificity for the treat-
ment of human diseases (Haefner, 2003). Marine
microorganisms especially are emerging as
good alternatives as sources for bioactive
substances. The study of metabolites from
microorganisms is a rapidly emerging field as
a result of the prediction that a number of me-
tabolites that have been obtained from marine
algae and invertebrates may in fact be pro-
duced by endophytic microbes rather than
by the larger host organisms. Indeed, several
workers have identified bioactive molecule-
producing microorganisms. Earlier studies were
concerned with bacteria and fungi isolated

from seawater, sediments, algae and fish, but
mainly from invertebrates such as sponges,
molluscs, tunicates, coelenterates and crust-
aceans (Pietra, 1997; Kelecom, 2002).

Efforts to extract drugs from the sea started
in the late 1960s, and within 10 years (from 1977
to 1987), about 2500 new metabolites were
reported from a variety of marine organisms.
Up to now, more than 10,000 compounds have
been reported from marine organisms, and the
list in increasing year by year. From 1969 to
1999, around 300 patents were granted for bio-
active molecules obtained from marine natural
resources (Kathiresan et  al., 2008). Increasing
knowledge of the impact of nutraceuticals on
human health, combined with advances in ex-
traction technologies, has prompted the identi-
fication of significant phytochemicals and prod-
uct innovations on a large scale. Natural marine
resources such as marine plants, microorgan-
isms and sponges, etc. have their own unique
sets of biomolecules, although the marine spe-
cies of flora, including microorganisms, have
been by and large less explored than the marine
fauna in the search for effective biomolecules.
However, it should be noted that several mar-
ine species of flora have been used as medicines
in India, China and Europe since ancient times.

The high intensity of sunlight in the mar-
ine environment causes UV-induced free rad-
ical production, and unicellular marine or-
ganisms are exposed to a high level of ROS.
In order to cope up with this, these organisms
develop efficient antioxidant mechanisms.
Takamatsu et al. (2003), for example, reported
more than one hundred pure natural marine
compounds from marine sponges, algae and
cyanobacteria that showed antioxidant prop-
erties. The marine environment then offers
huge potential for the development of anti-
oxidant biomolecules, and looking at the
current great demand of therapeutic antioxi-
dants, marine resources need to be explored
on a much larger scale.

7.2 Sources of Marine Bioactive/
Antioxidant Biomolecules

Sources of marine bioactive/antioxidant mol-
ecules among the marine flora include marine

Page 317

306 Index

tannins (continued)
tea 7
W. coagulans 6

Taxillus
T. liquidambaricola 18
T. sutchuenensis 17

TCMPs see traditional Chinese medicinal
plants (TCMPs)

tea 7
TEAC see Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity

(TEAC) assays
temperature stress

chilling 207
heat/high temperature 207–208

Terminalia
T. brasiliensis 103
T. chebula 5

Termitomyces heimii 287
Theaceae 78
thioredoxins 198, 199
Tinospora cordifolia 240
tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 204
tocochromanols 174, 175
tocopherols 174, 175
tocotrienols 174, 175
traditional Chinese medicinal plants (TCMPs)

antioxidant capacity and phenolic
contents of 21–25

Aconitum kusnezoffii 17
Agrimonia pilosa 19
anticancer activity 18
antiviral plants 18
Artemisiae Scopariae 18
Astragalus membranaceus 18–19
Cordyceps jiangxiensis 17
correlation 20, 26
Glechoma hederacea 16–17
heat-clearing category 16
Ixora chinensis 17
medical and food uses 16
Morus alba 19
Panax japonicus 17
Panax notoginseng 19
pao category plants 16
Phymatopteris hastate 18
Puerariae radix 17
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 19
Smilax china 17–18
Sophora japonica 19
storage time, effect of 19
Taxillus liquidambaricola 18
Taxillus sutchuenensis 17

natural antioxidants
Acacia confusa 20
Adinandra nitida 20
Astragalus mongholicus 26–27
Atractylodes macrocephala 27

Brandisia hancei 27
Dalbergia odorifera 27, 28
Dioscorea opposite 27
Engelhardia roxburghiana 28
Flos Lonicerae 28
Forsythia suspense 28
Garcinia multiflora 20
Lonicera japonica 28
Oxytropis falcate 28
Phellodendron amurense 27
Polygala hongkongensis 20
Polygonum multiflorum 27–28
Pueraria lobata 29
Radix astragali 28
Salvia miltiorrhiza 25–26
Salvia officinalis 28
Salvia plebeia 29
Scutellaria baicalensis 20, 25
Selaginella sinensis 28
Smilax glabra 29

Trema cannabina 240–241
Trichopus zeylanicus 8
Tridax procumbens L. 54
Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. 69
Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity

(TEAC) assays
Amazon plant species 101, 102
Indian medicinal plants 5
Lycoperdon molle 288
TCMPs 21–25

antiviral plants 18
heat-clearing category 16
pao category plants 16
Taxillus liquidambaricola 18
Taxillus sutchuenensis 17

Tussilago farfara 17
type III secretion system (TTSS) 261

ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B radiation)
209–210

Umbelliferae see Apiaceae

Verbenaceae 78–79
Verbena litoralis 105
Vernonia amygdalina 54, 241
Vicia faba 205
Vitaceae 79–80
vitamin B 199, 201
vitamin C 199, 201, 225, 226

Glechoma hederacea 17
Indian medicinal plants 7–8
mushrooms 285
Salvia miltiorrhiza 26

vitamin E 199, 201, 225, 226
Indian medicinal plants 7–8

Page 318

Index 307

mushrooms 285
Phellodendron amurense 27

Vitellaria paradoxa (C.F. Gaertn.) 77
Vitex cymosa 106
Vitis vinifera L. 79–80
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 261, 262

weeping wattle see Peltophorum africanum Sond.
Withania

W. coagulans 4, 6
W. somnifera 5, 9

Xanthorrhoeaceae 80

yeast extract (YE) 161

Zingiber officinale 241
Ziziphus mucronata Willd. 76–77
zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) 204
Zygophyllaceae

Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. 80–81
Zygophyllum simplex L. 81

Zygophyllum simplex L. 81

Similer Documents