Download RykuPrep Study Guide PDF

TitleRykuPrep Study Guide
TagsKidney Medical Specialties Diseases And Disorders Creatinine Renal Function
File Size825.1 KB
Total Pages50
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Page 1

RykuPrep Study Guide

General Cat & Dog Notes

 Heartworm disease is caused by Dirofilaria immitis.
o The adult worms produce L1 larvae (microfilariae) inside the bloodstream.

 L1 microfilariae mature to L3 larvae inside mosquitoes.
 L3 larvae are the infective stage inside cats and dogs.
 Heartworm preventives kill L3 & L4 larvae that have accumulated in the

animal’s subcutaneous tissue the past month.
o Heartworm antigen tests and microfilariae tests only work about 6 months post-

 It takes ~6 months for the L3s to mature into adults.

o Occult infection has adult worms only. Patent infection has microfilariae and can
transmit to mosquitoes.

 Occult infection would have positive antigen test and negative Knott’s

o No need testing puppies or kittens for heartworm until 6 months after given

 Use heartworm antigen test in dogs.

o Most common sequela of heartworm disease is thromboembolism.
Glomerulonephritis is also common due to Ag-Ab complex deposition in kidneys.

o Larvae are more likely to migrate to ectopic locations in cats than in dogs.
o Treatment for heartworms in dogs includes exercise restriction, doxycycline,

monthly preventive, and melarsomine.
 Doxycycline kills the Wolbachia bacteria associated with Dirofilaria

o Cats are not the true end-stage host for heartworms and will often kill off any L3s

they are exposed to.
 Use heartworm antibody test in cats.
 Treatment for cats is prednisolone, preventives, and possibly doxycycline.

 The two types of microfilariae that can be seen in dog blood are Dirofilaria immitis
(heartworm) and Acantheilonema reconditum.

Acantheilonema reconditum is non-pathologic and does not need to be treated.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with the cytokine

Doberman Pinschers are predisposed to type III hypersensitivity reactions to sulfa drugs

(such as TMS).
Air bronchograms on a radiograph indicate uniform lung consolidation.
Isotonic crystalloid shock dose in dogs is 90 mL/kg.

o Isotonic crystalloid shock dose in cats is 40 – 60 mL/kg.

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o Give 1/3 shock dose and then reassess.
Most cats prefer clumping litter.
Feline hairballs are treated with Laxatone.
Anticoagulant rodenticides will cause an increase in PT (prothrombin time) before other

coagulation times.
Lembert, Cushing, & Connell patterns are inversion patterns used to close hollow viscera.

o The Bunnel pattern is used to close severed tendons.
o The Ford interlocking pattern is used to appose tissues with increased tension.
o The horizontal and vertical mattress patterns are eversion patterns.

An alveolar radiographic pattern shows areas of consolidation with air bronchograms.
Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema can be caused by electrocution, pulmonary

thromboembolism, head trauma, and upper airway obstruction.
o Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is not caused by hypertension.

 Blood makes up 8% of body weight in most species.
o Cat blood makes up about 6% of body weight.
o In order to raise a PCV by 1%, give 1 ml/kg of packed red blood cells.

 A 100% solution is 1 g/mL.
o A 1% solution is 10 mg/mL.

 2/3rds of body weight is water.
o Intracellular fluid makes up 2/3rds of body water (40% of weight) & extracelluar

fluid makes up 1/3rd of body water (20% of weight).
 RER = 70 x BWkg0.75

o Another equation is RER = 30 x BWkg + 70
 Standard chemotherapy affects neutrophils the most because neutrophils have short half-

lives and replicate quickly.
o Chemotherapy targets cells that replicate quickly.

 The most common intussusception in small animals is ileocolic.
 A 1st degree burn involves the epidermis.

o A 2nd degree burn can go down to the dermis.
o A 3rd degree burn involves the adnexal structures.
o A 4th degree burn involves muscle and bone.

 The round ligament of the bladder is a remnant of the umbilical arteries.
o The urachus becomes the middle ligament of the bladder.
o The umbilical vein becomes the falciform ligament.

 In dogs, the dead space associated with aural hematomas are closed with mattress sutures
parallel to the blood vessels.

 Actinomyces (a filamentous, gram-positive, rod bacteria) is associated with plant awn

 In utero infection with feline panleukopenia virus can cause cerebellar hypoplasia.
o Feline panleukopenia virus is caused by a parvovirus.
o In utero infection with canine parvovirus causes nonsuppurative myocarditis.

 Canine parvovirus affects the GI tract and bone marrow (rapidly dividing tissues).

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Struvite uroliths are normally sterile in cats and normally associated with bacterial
infection in dogs.

o You want an acidifying diet to treat struvite uroliths.
o Other types of uroliths require an alkalinizing diet to prevent.
o Dalmatians are prone to ammonium urate stones.

 Dalmatians have a genetic defect in making allantoin from urates in the

liver. This predisposes them to forming urate stones and getting urinary
tract obstructions.

 Treat stones with allopurinol and a low-purine diet to alkalinize the urine.
 Allopurinol therapy in turn predisposes Dalmatians to Xanthine stones.

o Struvite and calcium stones can be seen on radiographs. Urate and cysteine
stones cannot.

o Most equine uroloiths are calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate.
 The most common urolith in ferrets is sterile struvite.

Phenylpropanolamine is an alpha-adrenergic agonist that treats urethral sphincter
mechanism incontinence.

o Phenylpropanolamine is used to treat dogs who leak urine.
Phenoxybenzamine is used to treat hypertonicty of urethral muscle.
A uroabdomen will have hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperphosphatemia, and

o Urine is high in potassium and low in sodium & chloride; the electrolytes

equilibrate with the blood.
A key finding of pyelonephritis is bacterial or leukocyte casts in urine.
Urethral obstruction commonly causes hyperkalemia. 0.9% NaCl is the best fluid to treat

o During the immediate post-obstructive period, cats may develop hypocalcemic

Urohydropropulsion is the expulsion of cystic calculi after anesthetizing an animal by

application of manual pressure to the bladder to expel the stone through the urethra.
o Best done in thin female dogs. Not done in male dogs because their long, narrow

urethras and os penis increase the likelihood of obstruction.
Protein-losing nephropathies are treated with ACE-inhibitors, low protein diets, & aspirin

(to decrease hyper-coagulable state). No antibiotics are given.
Treatment for urethral prolapse is urethropexy and castration. Most often seen in English

Myoglobinuria is characterized by brownish urine that does not clear on centrifugation

with normal-colored plasma.
o Myoglobin doesn’t bind to serum proteins, so it is cleared to the urine before it

builds up and discolors the plasma.
Check if fluid is urine by comparing creatinine to serum. Fluid:serum creatinine ratio of

greater than 2:1 is indicative that the fluid is urine.

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 Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (also known as TMS) works by interfering with
folate metabolism.

o Effective against gram +, gram -, & anaerobic bacteria.


 On bacterial culture & sensitivity reports, oxacillin indicates methicillin resistance.
 Streptococcus & Staphylococcus are gram + cocci.
 Clostridium are anaerobes.
 Nocardia & Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous rods.

o Actinomyces is a normal flora of the mouth and orpharynx.
 Klebsiella is a gram-negative encapsulated facultative anaerobic rod.
 Mycobacteria, Nocardia, and some coccidian parasites are acid fast.

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