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Table of Contents
                            STAINLESS STEELS

FOR DESIGN ENGINEERS
CHAPTER 1 - 

Metallurgy
CHAPTER 2 - 

Corrosion Theory
CHAPTER 3 - 
Corrosion Kinetics
CHAPTER 4 - 

Corrosion Types
CHAPTER 5 - 
Oxidation
CHAPTER 6 - 
Austenitic Stainless Steels
CHAPTER 7 - 
Duplex Stainless Steels
CHAPTER 8 - 
Ferritic Stainless Steels
CHAPTER 9 - 
Martensitic Stainless Steels
CHAPTER 10 - 
Precipitation-Hardening
Stainless Steels
CHAPTER 11 - 
Casting Alloys
CHAPTER 12 - 
Melting, Casting, and Hot Processing
CHAPTER 13 - 
Thermal Processing
CHAPTER 14 - 
Forming
CHAPTER 15 - 
Machining
CHAPTER 16 - 
Surface Finishing
CHAPTER 17 - 
Welding
CHAPTER 18 - 
Architecture and Construction
CHAPTER 19 - 
Automotive and Transportation
Applications
CHAPTER 20 - 
Commercial and Residential
Applications
CHAPTER 21 - 

Marine Systems Applications
CHAPTER 22 - 

Petroleum Industry Applications
CHAPTER 23 - 

Chemical and Process Industry
Applications
CHAPTER 24 - 

Pulp-and-Paper Industry Applications
APPENDIX 1 - 

Compositions
APPENDIX 2 - 

Physical and Mechanical Properties of
Select Alloys
APPENDIX 3 - 

Introduction to Thermo-Calc and
Instructions for Accessing Free
Demonstration Version
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

STAINLESS STEELS
FOR DESIGN ENGINEERS

MICHAEL MCGUIRE

ASM Internationalfi

Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002
www.asminternational.org

Copyright © 2008 ASM International®. All rights reserved.
Stainless Steels for Design Engineers (#05231G) www.asminternational.org

Page 2

Copyright © 2008
by

ASM International®

All rights reserved

No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the
copyright owner.

First printing, December 2008

Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this book, but it should be made clear that NO WAR-
RANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MER-
CHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH
THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee
that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use
by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use
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tion, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not cov-
ered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a de-
fense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability
for such infringement.

Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International.

Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Technical Book Committee (2007�2008), Lichun L.
Chen, Chair.

ASM International staff who worked on this project include Scott Henry, Senior Manager of Product and Service
Development; Steven R. Lampman, Technical Editor; Eileen De Guire, Associate Editor; Ann Britton, Editorial
Assistant; Bonnie Sanders, Manager of Production; Madrid Tramble, Senior Production Coordinator; Diane
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2008934669
ISBN-13: 978-0-87170-717-8

ISBN-10: 0-87170-717-9
SAN: 204-7586

ASM International®

Materials Park, OH 44073-0002
www.asminternational.org

Printed in the United States of America

Page 150

146 / Stainless Steels for Design Engineers

better resistance to SCC despite its higher
strength level.

REFERENCES

1. F.B. Pickering, Physical Metallurgical De-
velopments of Stainless Steel, Stainless ’84,
Goteborg, Sept 3–4, 1984, p 2–28.

2. M. Murayama, Y. Katayama, and K. Hono,
Microstructural Evolution in a 17-4 PH
Stainless Steel After Aging at 400 °C, Met-

allurgical and Materials Transactions A,
Vol 30A, Feb 1999.

3. G. Aggen, Ph.D. thesis, Carnegie Mellon
University

4. E.E. Denhard, “Stress Corrosion Cracking
of High Strength Stainless Steels in Atmos-
pheric Environments”, paper presented at
the Twenty-fourth Meeting of the AGARD
Structures and Materials Panel (Turin,
Italy), April 17–20, 1967.

5. Allegheny Technology Blue Sheets

Fig. 5 The influence of cold work on aging response in A-286. DPH, diamond pyramid hardness. Source: Ref 5

Page 151

CHAPTER 11

Casting Alloys

Summary

WITH TYPICAL ALLOY SYSTEMS, cast-
ing is often the most convenient method by
which to produce components. This is true for
stainless steelsÑboth for corrosion-resisting
and for heat-resisting applications. This chapter
discusses primarily the alloys used for stainless
steel castings and their metallurgy. Foundry
methods are discussed to the degree they are
speciÞc to the stainless alloys.

Stainless Steel Casting Alloys

Essentially any wrought stainless alloy compo-
sition can be modiÞed to be made as a cast alloy.
The systemic difference between cast alloys and
their wrought equivalents is that cast alloys gen-
erally contain between 1.0 and 2.5% silicon. As
with other ferrous alloys, this is done to increase
the ßuidity of the melt to make it cast more effec-
tively. Silicon has strong metallurgical effects,
both beneÞcial and detrimental, which should be
understood by the user of cast stainless steels.
These are explained. A second general observa-
tion is that the stabilized ferritic stainless steel al-
loys, which constitute almost half the tonnage of
all stainless steel used, are notably absent from
the cast alloys. This is because these alloys are
single phase at all temperatures in the solid state
and because they have large as-cast grain sizes
that can only be reÞned by heavy cold work fol-
lowed by annealing. This makes them quite lack-
ing in toughness as cast. Since heavy cold work
defeats the purpose of casting to achieve a near-
net shape, stabilized ferritic stainless steels are
seldom used as castings. Also, the standard stabi-
lizing alloy, titanium, is too readily oxidized for
normal foundry practice to avoid the loss of this

essential element. Thus, the casting alloys listed
in Tables 1 and 2 (Ref 1) are recognizable as ap-
proximate counterparts of the co-listed wrought
alloys (AISI grade). This cross reference to
wrought equivalents is helpful when looking for
data about an alloy that may be more easily
found for wrought alloys than for cast.

The High Alloy Product Group of the Steel
FounderÕs Society of America employs a nam-
ing system (ACI, the Alloy Casting Institute)
for cast alloys that is signiÞcant; these designa-
tions are currently assigned by ASTM as grades
and are added to ASTM speciÞcations. The Þrst
letter, ÒCÓ or ÒH,Ó indicates corrosion resisting.
The second letter indicates the relative amount
of nickel, from a minimum of 0 to 1% for ÒAÓ
up to 30% nickel for ÒNÓ alloys. The number
following the hyphen for ÒCÓ alloys designates
the maximum carbon in hundredths of a percent.
The suffix letters designate additional alloying
elements, such as Cu for copper, M for molyb-
denum, N for nickel or nitrogen, F for free ma-
chining, and C for columbium (niobium). The
heat-resisting, ÒH,Ó alloys have generally only a
second letter designating relative nickel level on
the same scale as ÒCÓ alloys but going past stain-
less steels all the way to nickel-based alloys. The
inclusion of a number after the Þrst two letters
indicates the center of the carbon range ex-
pressed in hundredths of a percent by weight.

To learn more about the inßuence of alloying
elements, refer to the chapters on the individual
alloy families; see Section 3. Here, we brießy
summarize:

¥ Pitting and crevice corrosion resistance, as
well as general corrosion resistance, are en-
hanced by chromium, molybdenum, tung-
sten, and nitrogen and carbon in solution.

¥ Localized corrosion is caused by chromium
depletion, which occurs when precipitates

Stainless Steels for Design Engineers
Michael F. McGuire, p 147-154
DOI: 10.1361/ssde2008p147

Copyright © 2008 ASM International®
All rights reserved.
www.asminternational.org

Page 300

304 / Index

U
Ugima oxide

coating cutting tool and lubricant, 189Ð190
comparing 304L chips with and without, 190(F)
machinability by sulfur levels with and without, 190(F)
x-ray showing, 189(F)

umbilical tubing and risers, 253Ð254
uniform corrosion. See alsocorrosion types

environmental variables inßuencing, 28Ð29
material variables, 29Ð31
stainless steel, 27Ð28

United States, chloride concentration in rainwater,
217(F)

unmixed zone,208

V
vacuum arc remelting (VAR), 157Ð158
vacuum induction melting (VIM), 157
vacuum oxygen decarburization (VOD)

cleanliness, 184
reÞning process, 156

vanadium
carbides for ßatware, 240
high-temperature martensitic stainless, 133, 134(F)

Volvo, auto components, 230

W
WagnerÕs theory,61Ð63
washer tubs and drums, 241
water heaters, 241, 242
waterline corrosion, 38
water marking, cleaning method for uncoated stainless,

220(T)
water vapor, 81Ð82
wax-base pastes, 179(T)
wax or soap plus borax, 179(T)
weather pattern, stainless steel selection expert system,

216(F)
weldability, 253
welding

austenitic stainless steels, 201Ð204
cast stainless alloys, 154
characteristics of stainless steels, 201Ð206
duplex stainless steels, 204Ð205

ferritic stainless steels, 205Ð206
ßux cored wire (FCW), 210
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 210
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 208Ð210
high-frequency induction, 211
joint design, 208, 209(F)
laser, 210
martenistic stainless steels, 206
material selection and performance, 206Ð208
metal ßow directions in weld pool, 208(F)
new developments, 212
nondestructive evaluation (NDE), 211
oxyfuel gas welding (OFW), 210
parameters for various stainless steels, 207(T)
practices, 211Ð212
precipitation-hardening (PH) stainless steels, 206
processes, 208Ð211
recent developments, 211Ð212
resistance, 210Ð211
safety, 211
Schaeffler diagram, 202(F)
sensitization, 48
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 210
soldering and brazing, 211
submerged arc welding (SAW), 210
thermal cutting, 211
Thermo-Calc software, 283
tungsten inert gas (TIG), 208Ð210
Welding Research CouncilÕs 1992 constitution diagram,

203(F)
weld shielding gas composition and crevice corrosion

resistance, 204(F)
Welding Research Council, constitution diagram,

203(F)
welds

inßuence of sulfur on pitting resistance of unannealed,
42(F)

long-term annealing, 43
wet carbon dioxide, 248

Y
yield strength

austenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel, 145(F)
equation, 74
high-temperature austenitic alloys, 83, 84(F)

yttrium, 65

Page 301

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obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having
technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are
outside of ASM's control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this
information. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to
specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended.

Nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale,
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