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Page 1

Kalpataru Research Foundation


Study Report on

Watershed Development
December 2001


Page No.

Executive Summary (i)

1.0 Background and Relevance of the Study 1

2.0 Objective and Scope 4

3.0 Approach and Methodology 5

4.0 Watershed Development in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh 10

5.0 Watershed Development in Sample Districts 22

6.0 Profile of Sample Watersheds 34

7.0 Socio-Economic Analysis of Sample Households 39

8.0 Perception of Community on

Watershed Development Programmes 56

9.0 Functioning of Watershed Associations and

Water User Groups 60

10.0 Impact of the Watershed Programme 62

11.0 Suggestions for Improvement in Sustainability 65

Page 34

Kalpataru Research Foundation



5.30 Mahabubnagar District is a chronically a drought prone district. The average annual
rainfall is about 604 mm. Earlier it was 753 mm but due to continuous deficient
rainfall in the past so many years, the average is refined as 604 mm. The rainfall is
erratic and hardly there will be 25 rainy days during the monsoon period. There are
instances that about 200 mm (1/3rd of year's rain) is received in one single day.

5.31 Erratic rainfall, loss of tree cover, hard soil surface, undulating terrain make an ideal
setting for surface seen off of rain water and soil erosion. A typical flood and drought
syndrome has developed in the district, that is to say, in mid summer a good shower
can cause tank breaches and a weeks gap of rain in rainy season can create drought
conditions. The soil has lost its texture and moisture retention capacity. Whatever
rain occurs it has to run away and very little percolates. With less percolation and
more of extraction of ground water through deep bores the water able is going down
at an alarming rate - A rough estimate put it about 1.5m annually. The dug wells,
which were the main stay for irrigation, have totally dried up and they are replaced by
deep bore wells.

5.32 The Mahabubnagar district is spread over an area of 18475 Sq.kms. The area brought

under Watershed treatment in the district is 2,67,500 hectares benefiting nearly two
lakh people. The Financial investment made so far by the government is Rs.400.3
million and the community contribution is to the tune of Rs.15.3 million. The
following Table - 5.2 gives the activities carried out under Watershed programme in
the district.

Table - 5.2 : Activities completed under Watershed Programme

Sl. No. Work Component Unit Physical Financial

1. Contour Bunding Ha. 55519 1080.85

2. Continuous Contour Trenches Ha. 7703 167.50

3. Check Dams No. 576 660.55

4. Percolation Tanks No. 378 345.00

5. Gully Control Works No. 46590 573.36

6. Horticulture No. 13827 290.54

7. Pasture Development Ha. 3831 32.34

8. Smokeless Chullahs No. 51591 52.44

9. Sericulture Ha. 727 19.66

10. Rehabilitation of Degraded Forest Lands Ha. 1464 15.18

11. Agro-Forestry Ha. 1585 223.91

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