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Page 1

THERMAL
INSULATION
HANDBOOK














April 2001








THE THERMAL INSULATION ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN AFRICA
Administered by

ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTURAL ALUMINIUM MANUFACTURERS OF SOUTH AFRICA
Incorporating the Architectural Glass Industry

P O Box 15852 Lyttelton 0140

Page 2

ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTURAL ALUMINIUM MANUFACTURERS OF SOUTH AFRICA



Incorporating the Architectural Glass Industry


P O Box 15852 The AAAMSA Studio
LYTTELTON 261 Retief Avenue
0140 LYTTELTON MANOR
0157

(012) 664-5570/86
Fax: (012) 664-5659
E-mail: [email protected]
Web-site: www.tiasa.org.za

INTRODUCTION

The Thermal Insulation Association of Southern Africa (TIASA), currently under the aegis of AAAMSA,
promotes that part of the industry that specializes in the insulation of ceilings, walls, floors, piping and vessels
with cold and hot insulation.

Membership constitutes manufacturers and suppliers of insulation materials, consultants for thermal insulation
as well as contractors who sell and install insulation materials.

This specification refers to the measuring of completed insulation installations for industrial applications and
will enable Architects, Engineers, Quantity Surveyors, Developers and other Specifiers to quantify their
insulation requirements.

Having the installation done by contractors who are members of TIASA will ensure that the installation meets
with the specified performance standards.

This handbook only addresses hot and cold insulation. TIASA is presently preparing information regarding
ambient (building) insulation and the acoustical properties of insulation materials for inclusion in future editions
of this handbook.

Readers are encouraged to submit their comments to the TIASA, which will be considered for inclusion in
future editions.

We acknowledge the valuable input received from TIMSA (Thermal Insulation Manufacturers & Suppliers
Association) whose information has been included in the Product Selection Guide – Hot Insulation Page 8-12
and Cold Insulation – Pages 19-27.


All information, recommendation or advise contained in these AAAMSA General Specifications and Selection Guides is given in good faith,
to the best of AAAMSA’s knowledge and based on current procedures in effect.

Because actual use of AAAMSA General Specifications and Selection Guides by the user is beyond the control of AAAMSA, such use is
within the exclusive responsibility of the user. AAAMSA cannot be held responsible for any loss incurred through incorrect or faulty use of
its General Specifications and Selection Guides.

Great care has been taken to ensure that the information provided is correct. No responsibility will be accepted by AAAMSA for any errors
and/or omissions which may have inadvertently occurred.

This Guide may be reproduced in whole or in part in any form or by any means provided the reproduction or transmission acknowledges the
origin and copyright date.


Copyright AAAMSA 2001

Page 29

Page 24


4.5.6 PRODUCT SELECTION GUIDE – COLD INSULATION




POLYPROPYLENE POLYSTYRENE EXPANDED
1 Density (and range, if applicable) 20 kg/m3 1 Density (and range, if applicable)
2 Thermal Conductivity 2 Thermal Conductivity
Thermal conductivity (W/mK) at density indicated below Thermal conductivity (W/mK) at density indicated below
Mean temp °C 20 kg/m3 Mean temp °C 15 kg/m3 20 kg/m3 25 kg/m3 30 kg/m3
10 0,34 10 0,038 0,035 0,033 0,033
3 Service Temperature range - 40 to 130°C 3 Service Temperature range -150 to 80°C
4 Reaction to Fire Characteristics 4 Reaction to Fire Characteristics
a. DIN 4102 B2 pass a. Combustibility to BS476 part 4 Combustible
b. NPF 92-501 M2 pass b. Surface spread to flame to BS476 part 7
c. SIA 183 5.2 pass Insulant (if appropriate) Unclassifiable
Composite finish (if appropriate) Class 1
Foil faced products (if appropriate) Class 1
c. Building Regulations
Insulate (if appropriate) Unclassifiable
Composite finish (if appropriate) Up to Class 0
Foil faced products (if appropriate) Up to Class 0
Water Vapour Transmission
5 Absorption by diffusion, SIA 179 in vol % 1 Insulant (if appropriate) 25 gm/Nh
6 Vapour permeability SIA 279 in ng/Pa.m.s. 0,45 6 Composite finish/foil faced product (if appropriate) 0,001g/(s. MN)
7 Chloride ion level 7 Mechanical Properties
8 Mechanical Properties Less than 15ppm 8 a. Compressive strength 15 kg/m3
a. A comprehensive strength at 10% deflection (vertical

director) (ASTM3575)
35 b. Flexural strength N/a

c. Tensile strength 200 kN/m2
9 Thickness Range 43 and 50mm Thickness Range Available from 5 to 610mm
10 Forms available Boards of 600 by 2800mm 9 Forms available Beads, Laminates, Sheets, Pipe Insulation
TYPICAL USES AND APPLICATIONS
Used for thermal insulation in tank container industry where a lightweight product
with no water absorption and with low chloride ion industrial and process plant
sectors. The higher density gives improved mechanical properties and lower thermal
conductivities at high mean temperatures.

TYPICAL USES AND APPLICATIONS
Construction – floor, wall, roof insulation in domestic, commercial and industrial
buildings. As laminated panels, e.g. Gypsum board and various other facings. As a
pipe insulation material in commercial and industrial refrigeration applications.

Page 30

Page 25
4.5.7 PRODUCT SELECTION GUIDE – COLD INSULATION


POLYSTYRENE FOAM EXTRUDED RIGID POLYURETHANE FOAM (PUR)
1 Density (and range, if applicable) 1 Density (and range, if applicable)
2 Thermal Conductivity 2 Thermal Conductivity
Thermal conductivity (W/mK) at density indicated below Thermal conductivity (W/mK) at density indicated below
Mean temp °C 28 kg/m3 32 kg/m3 38 kg/m3 45 kg/m3 Mean temp °C 35 kg/m3 40 kg/m3 50 kg/m3
10 0,027 0,028 0,025 0,036 -150 0,016 0,016 0,016
-50 0,022 0,022 0,022
0 0,021 0,021 0,021
10 0,023 0,023 0,023
50 0,026 0,026 0,026
100 0,032 0,032 0,032
3 Service Temperature range -60 to 75°C 3 Service Temperature range -180 to 110°C
4 Reaction to Fire Characteristics 4 Reaction to Fire Characteristics
a. Combustibility to BS476 part 4 Combustible a. Combustibility to BS476 part 4 Combustible
b. Surface spread to flame to BS476 part 7 b. Surface spread to flame to BS476 part 7
Insulant (if appropriate) Unclassifiable Insulant (if appropriate) Class 4
Composite finish (if appropriate) Up to Class 1 Composite finish (if appropriate) Class 1
Foil faced products (if appropriate) Up to Class 1 Foil faced products (if appropriate) Class 1
c. Building Regulations c. Building Regulations
Insulate (if appropriate) Exceeds limits Insulate (if appropriate) N/a
Composite finish (if appropriate) Up to Class 0 Composite finish (if appropriate) Class 0
Foil faced products (if appropriate) Up to Class 0 Foil faced products (if appropriate) N/a
5 Water Vapour Transmission 5 Water Vapour Transmission
Insulant (if appropriate) 0,15 to 0,075 gm/Nh Insulant (if appropriate) 20 gm/Nh
Composite finish/foil faced product (if appropriate) 0,001g/(s. MN) Composite finish/foil faced product (if appropriate) 0,001g/(s.MN)
6 Mechanical Properties 28 kg/m3 28 kg/m3 28 kg/m3 6 Mechanical Properties 35 kg/m3

para perp
40 kg/m3

para perp
50 kg/m3

para perp
a. Compressive strength at 10%

Deformation (in kN/m2)
250 500 700 a. Compressive strength at

10%
Deformation (in kN/m2)

172 100 260 200 350 250

b. Flexural strength 450kPa 650kPa 800kPa b. Flexural strength 300 250 415 380 550 450
c. Tensile strength 365kPa 465kPa 900kPa c. Tensile strength 250 200 540 390 650 400
7 Thickness Range Available from 12,5 to 200 mm 7 Thickness Range Available from 15 to 150 mm
8 Forms available Boards, Pipe Insulation, Slabs 8 Forms available HD Mouldings, Moulded, Pipe Insulation, Sections, Slabs
TYPICAL USES AND APPLICATIONS
Structural uses include floor, wall and roof insulation in domestic, commercial and
industrial applications cold store. Panel and refrigerated truck manufacture. Used in
commercial and industrial applications on refrigeration pipe work.

TYPICAL USES AND APPLICATIONS
Used in medium to heavy-duty refrigeration to reduce heat gain and provide
condensation control. Low temperature tankage of carbon dioxide, propane, etc.
Laminated panels used in cold stores and refrigerated vehicles. Foam in-site and spray
systems available.

Page 57

Annex 5 – Page 10

SUPPLY MAINS: The source of a piping system where the run outs and risers originate from.


SUPPORT (Insulation): A device, which carries the weight of insulation.

SURFACE TEMPERATURE (Ta): The surface temperature of finished insulation.

TACK: The property of an adhesive that enables it to form a measurable bond immediately after adhesive and

adherent are brought into contact under low pressure.

TEAR STRENGTH: See Mechanical Properties of Insulation.

TEMPERATURE LIMITES : See Thermal Properties of Insulation.

THERMAL INSULATION: See Insulation.

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF INSULATION:

CONDUCTANCE (C): Transfer of heat through the vibration of molecules within a fiber or

between fibers in physical contact with each other.

CONDUCTIVITY (K-or -value): The amount of heat transferred in a unit time through a unit

area and unit thickness with a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces.

EMMISIVITY (E): The ability of a surface to radiate energy as compared to that emitted by an ideal

black body at the same temperature.

FREEZE/THAW RESISTANCE: The property of a material, which permits it to be alternately

frozen and thawed through many cycles without damage.

RESISTANCE (R): A measure of the ability to retard heat flow rather than the ability to transmit

heat. “R” is the numerical reciprocal of “U” or “C”, thus combination with numerals to designate
thermal resistance values: R-11 equals 11 resistance units. The higher the “R”, the higher the insulating
value.


TEMPERATURE LIMITS: The upper and lower temperatures at which a material will experience
no change in its properties.


THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE: The property of a material that indicates its ability to be subjected to

rapid temperature changes without physical failure.

TRANSMITTANCE (U): The combined thermal value of all the materials in a building section, air spaces

and surface air films. It is the time rate of heat flow and usually expressed as watt (W).

THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE: See Thermal Properties of Insulation.

TRACED: The supplying of auxiliary heat to a pipe or piece of equipment by means of a companion line

containing a hot fluid or electric resistance. It can be thermally or mechanically bonded to the pipe or equipment.

TUBE TURNS: See Pipe and Fittings.

VALVES: See Pipe and Fittings.

VAPOUR-BARRIER: A material or materials which when installed on the high vapor pressure side of a

material retard of the moisture vapor to the lower vapor pressure side.


VENTILATING AIR: Air supplied to or removed from a source by natural or mechanical means.

VIBRATION RESISTANCE: See Mechanical Properties of Insulation.

WARPAGE: The change in the flatness of a material caused by differences in the temperatures and/or

humidity’s applied to opposite surfaces of the material.

WASHER (Insulation): Used with weld pins to hold insulation in place.

WATER ABSORPTION: The increase in weight of a test specimen expressed as a percentage of its dry

weight after immersion in water for a specified time.

Page 58

Annex 5 – Page 11


WATERPROOF: (adj.) Impervious to prolonged exposure to water.

WATER RESISTANT: Capable of withstanding limited exposure to water.

WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY: The property of a substance that permits passage of water vapour

and is equal to the permeance of an 1 inch thickness of the substance. Permeability is measured in perm inches.

WATER VAPOUR PERMEANCE: The ratio of water vapour flow to the vapor pressure difference

between the two surfaces of a sheet of material (or the assembly between parallel surfaces). Permeance is
measured in perms.


WEATHER-BARRIER: A material or materials which, when installed on the outer surface of thermal

insulation, protects the insulation from weather damage incurred by rain, snow, sleet, wind, solar radiation and
atmospheric contamination.


WEATHER/VAPOUR-BARRIER: A material, which combines the properties of a weather-barrier and a
vapour-barrier.


WELD PIN : Made of carbon steel, stainless steel or aluminium in various lengths for attaching insulation to

metal surfaces. Applied by welding, manufactured in 10, 12 and 14 gauges.

WELD STUD: See Stud.

WICKING : Action of absorbing by capillary action.

“Z” CLIP : See “S” Clip.

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